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000-071 | P2020-079 | 000-M03 | C9020-560 | 000-715 | 000-731 | 000-030 | 000-284 | C2040-421 | 000-M20 | 000-N11 | 000-314 | 000-N27 | 000-793 | COG-605 | LOT-916 | A2040-913 | 000-240 | C9020-970 | C2140-823 |



Friday's specific preps consequences

Baseball

WESCO SOUTH

Jackson 11, Shorewood four

Shorewood 040 000 0- 4 5 1 Jackson 210 404 x-eleven 14 1 young, Lange (7) and Hampton; Cam Nobles, Chris Bowen (four) and Kiel Lillibridge. WP-Bowen (2-0). LP-young. Highlights-Lillibridge, J, 3-three, 2 2B, solo HR in sixth, 2 RBI, 3 runs; Curt Nelson, J, 2-four, 2B, 2 RBI. facts-Jackson three-4, 5-4; Shorewood 1-6, three-6.

Everett 7, Mountlake Terrace 6

Everett 202 120 0-7 13 2 Mtlk. Terrace 120 111 0-6 10 2 John Cronin, Nate Smith (5) and Douglas Decker; Ryan Strieby, Jeremy Klippenstein (6) and Justin Bruce. WP-Cronin (1-0). LP-Strieby (1-2). Highlights-Arturo Meza, E, 2-four, 3B, RBI; TJ Gaffney, E, 2-4, 2B, RBI; Zach Gretch, MLT, 2-2, 2B, 2 RBI; Chris Aplin, MLT, 2-2, RBI. records-Mountlake Terrace 2-5, three-6; Everett 6-1, 6-3.

Kamiak four, Lynnwood 0

Kamiak 001 000 three-4 7 0 Lynnwood 000 000 0-0 1 0 Kyle Johnson and Tim Reed; Michael Sloan and Mark McAfee. WP — Johnson (1-1). LP — Sloan (0-1). Highlights — Johnson, okay, 7 IP, 1 hit, 16 Ks, four BBs; Reed, k, solo HR in third, 2 RBI; Jeff Poole, ok, 2-three; Griffith, k, 2B; Paul Tomisser, okay, 3B, RBI; Whitney Wilson, RBI; Sloan, L, 7 IP, 7 hits, 2 Ks, 2 BB. information — Kamiak 6-1, 7-2; Lynnwood 1-6, 1-eight.

Shorecrest four, Meadowdale 1

Meadowdale 000 000 1-1 6 2 Shorecrest 201 one hundred x-four 5 1 Porter Balke and Richard O'Neill; Derek DuPree and Tim Workman. WP — DuPree (3-1). LP — Balke. Highlights — DuPree, S, 8 Ks, 2 BB, 0 ER, solo HR in third; Jordan Olsen, S, 2-3, 2 2B, 2 RBI; J.J. Berg, S, 2B. statistics — Shorecrest 6-1, 6-2; Meadowdale 5-2, 7-2.

WESCO NORTH

Stanwood 8, Arlington three

Stanwood 001 031 3-8 8 2 Arlington 100 020 0-3 6 1 Andrew Davis, Griffin (6), Dan Toshner (7) and Josh Northrup; Chris Adams, Carson Cooper (5), Ben Bourasaw (7) and Dan Dumovich. WP-Davis. LP-Adams (0-1). Highlights-Blake Wickstrom, S, three-3, 2 2B, RBI, 2 runs; Eric Saksaug, A, three-four, 2B, 2-run HR in fifth, 2 RBI. information-Stanwood three-2, 7-2; Arlington 1-6, 2-7.

Monroe 8, Lake Stevens 5

Monroe 113 one hundred 2-8 12 1 Lake Stevens 200 002 1-5 9 three Tyler Marley, Andy Snyder (6) and Andy Ranko; Jacob amazing, Sean 1st Baron Verulam (5), Matt Stevens (7) and Jesse Bauer. WP-Marley (1-0). LP-potent (1-1). Highlights-Brad Williams, M, 3-four, 2B, 3 runs; Mitch Recor, M, three-4, four RBI; Mitch Canham, LS, 2-three. records-Monroe 3-four, three-6; L.Stevens 0-5, 3-6.

Mount Vernon 1, Cascade 0

Mount Vernon 000 010 0-1 7 0 Cascade 000 000 0-0 2 three Kyle Kendrick and Riley Jungquist; Chad Schroeder and Nick Rutter. WP- Kyle Kendrick. LP-Schroeder (1-1). Highlights-Kendrick, MV, 13 Ks, 2 BB, 2-4, 2B; Chad Schroeder, 11 Ks, 1 BB, 2B. statistics-Mount Vernon 7-0, 7-0; Cascade three-2, 6-three.

Marysville-Pilchuck 5, all rightHarbor 0

o.k.Harbor 000 000 0-0 0 1 Marysville-Pilchuck 201 200 x-5 7 1 Jerrid Wagner, Tom Moser (four) and Kyle Isaacson; Nick Haughian, Matt Dale (6) and James Day. WP-Nick Haughian (1-0). LP-Jerrid Wagner. Highlights-Devin Akau, M-P, 2 run HR 1st; Austin Akau, M-P, 2-four, 2 RBI; Joe Newland, M-P, 2B, RBI; Nick Haughian and Matt Dale, M-P, mixed no-hitter. facts-M-P 3-4, 6-four; OH 2-5, 6-5.

SPSL NORTH

Kentridge 15, Auburn Riverside 5 (5 lodge.)

Auburn Riverside 212 00- 5 9 1 Kentridge 447 0x-15 sixteen 1 Nick Ladas, Matt Floyd (2), Zack Armenta (three) and Jeff Savas; Ian Harrington and Kevin Broadbent. WP — Harrington (4-0). LP — Ladas. Highlights — Brandon Robins, AR, 2-three, 2B; Eric Pope, AR, 2-2, 2B, 2 RBI; Savas, AR, 2B, RBI; Kevin Corrigan, KR, three-three, 2B, two-run HR in third, 5 RBI; Derek Jennings, KR, 2-2, 2B, three-run HR in 3rd, three RBI; Andrew Thiesen, KR, 2-run HR in third; Eric corridor, KR, three-four, 2 RBI. statistics — Auburn Riverside three-5 league; Kentridge 6-1, eight-1.

Sumner four, Tahoma three

Tahoma 010 011 0-three 6 1 Sumner 011 a hundred and ten x-4 eight 1 Bryce Freed, Tim Segelke (5) and Jon Griffin, Clay Hayden (6); Marc Shoemaker, Carlos Marquez (7) and David Rider. WP — Shoemaker (2-1). LP — Freed. Sv — Marquez (1). Highlights — Hayden, T, 1-three, solo HR in sixth; Danny Meier, T, 1-2, solo HR in 2nd; Craig Britt, S, 2-4, solo HR in fifth, 2B; Kyle Russer, S, 2-three, SB, RBI; Alex Rawlings, S, 2-2, 2 SB. records — Tahoma 5-2 league; Sumner four-four, 7-four.

Auburn 2, Kentlake 0

Auburn 011 000 0-2 1 2 Kentlake 000 000 0-0 four 1 Tyler Sanland and Ryan Scott; Jordan Binning, Jake Firman (4) and Mike Berg.

WP-Tyler Sanland. LP-Jake Binning (0-1). Highlights-Matt Odman, A, 2B, RBI; Rutger Bovard, k, 2B. records-Kentlake 5-three, 7-3; Auburn 4-4.

KINGCO 4A

Garfield 3, Inglemoor 1

Inglemoor 000 001 0-1 5 2 Garfield 000 111 x-three three 1 Bochsler and Dunn; Freidenberg and Moedritzer. WP-Freidenberg (2-1). LP-Bochsler. Highlights-Aoki, I, 2-3; Andrew Mitchell, G, 1-three, RBI; Freidenberg, G, 5 hits, okay, 2 BB. records-Garfield four-5, Inglemoor 4-5.

Juanita 5, Franklin three

Franklin 000 one hundred twenty 0-three 5 three Juanita 000 221 x-5 9 2 Peralta, Dinh (6), and Wicklund; Harrison Bishop, Sean Beszhak (5) and Andy Barb. WP-Sean Beszhak (2-1). LP-Peralta. Highlights-Pa'Aoalo, F, 2-four; Wright, F, RBI; Thompson, F, RBI, Peralta, F, RBI; Rob McCauley, J, 2-3; Harrison Bishop, J, 2-3, 2B, 2 RBI; Jim Murphy, J, 2-3, solo HR in sixth; Sean Beszhak, J, solo HR in fifth. information-Juanita 6-2, Franklin 2-6.

Eastlake 9, Lake Washington three

Eastlake 011 007 0-9 10 0 Lake Washington 000 201 0-three 5 2 Nick Whitworth and Tim Ahern; Will Loseke, Paul Dickey (4), Mike Dedonato (5), Max Navalinski (6) and Eddie Gonzalez. WP-Whitworth. LP-Dedonato (0-1). Highlights-Sean Teague, E, 4-5, 2B, 2 steals; Ahern, E, 3-three; Whitworth, E, 12 Ks; Bryan Yates, E, solo HR in 3rd; Aaron Adsit, LW, solo HR in sixth. statistics-LW 7-2; Eastlake four-5.

KINGCO 3A

Newport 5, Mount Si 4Mount Si 001 020 1 - four 6 0Newport 001 022 x - 5 5 1Alex sensible and sales; Brian Bennett, Brett Hawley (6) and A.J. Jorg. WP-Hawley (1-0). LP-wise (0-1). Highlights-Jeff Miller, N, 2-3, 3B, 2 RBI; Randy Nash, N, 2-three, 3B, 2 RBI, online game-successful hit; Bennett, N, fifty one/3 IP, 2 ER, three hits, four Ks, no BB; Weber, MS, 1-three, solo HR in 4th; Hillburn, MS, 1-1, pinch-hit solo HR in seventh. facts-Newport 6-1, 7-2; Mount Si 5-2.

Liberty 9, Sammamish 7Liberty 121 011 3 - 9 09 2Sammamish 020 040 1 - 7 12 2Webster, Routos (5) and Bartholemew; Gustafson, eco-friendly (6), Bradshaw (7) and McCann. WP-Routos. LP-eco-friendly. Highlights-Kimbrel, L, 2-four, 3 runs, 2B, solo HR; Tomich, L, 2-3, three RBI, HR; Bartholemew, L, 2-four, HR, 2 RBI; Honda, S, 3-5, 2B, RBI, 2 SB; Kennewick, S, 2-4, RBI; L. McCann, S, 1-2, 2 runs; Motley, S, 1-3, solo HR, RBI.

Issaquah 5, Bellevue four (8 hotel.)Issaquah a hundred 200 eleven - 5 8 0Bellevue 003 100 00 - four 7 1Brian Justice, Derek Bondo (4), Jake Hover (6), Nick Kramer; Ryan Scott, Steven Englund (7), Dan Calpin (eight) and Kris Hintz. WP-Hover (1-0). LP-Calpin (0-1). Highlights-Scott Suttmeier, I, three-four, RBI; EJ Gregory, B, 2-4, 2 RBI; Nick Cramer, I, 2-four, RBI; Steven Englund, B, 2-3. records-Issaquah 7-0, Bellevue 2-5, three-5.

Cedarcrest four, Mercer Island 1Cedarcrest 001 030 0 - 4 7 1Mercer Island 000 010 0 - 1 5 3Kyle Eldred, Russell McGinnis (7) and Brooks; Matthews, Maurer (7) and Straud. WP-Eldred (1-0). LP-Mathews (0-1). Highlights-Cody Thompson, C, 2B; Derrick Foote, C, 2-three; Russell McGinnis, C, HR, 3 RBI; Josh Bnson, C, 2-3; Eric Thompson, MI, 2-3; Duncan Schnoor, MI, 2-2, HR, RBI. statistics-Cedarcrest 1-6; Mercer Island 3-four, four-5. METRO LEAGUE

O'Dea four, Eastside Catholic 0

O'Dea 010 021 0-4 7 0 Eastside Catholic 000 000 0-0 5 3 Matt Blanchette and Greg Lagreid; R. Fischesser and B. Marcoe. WP-Blanchette (1-0). LP-Fischesser. Highlights-Josh Campbell, O'D, 2-3, 2B, RBI; Blanchette, O'D, 5 hits, ok, 2 walks, 2B, RBI; J. Angier, EC, 2-2, 2B, SB; Marcoe, EC, 2B. facts-O'Dea 7-1, 7-3; E.C. 6-2.

Seattle Prep 10, Bainbridge 8

Bainbridge 031 210 1- eight 12 2 Seattle Prep 142 300 x-10 9 2 Roach, Gottlieb (4), unavailable (6), Apro (6) and Apro, unavailable (6); Craig Lockett, Allan Koski (5), Jase Diemer (6) and Colin Gregg. WP — Lockett (2-0). LP-Roach. Highlights-Adam Williams, SP, 3-4, 2B, 2-run HR in 2nd, three RBI; Calvin Anderson, SP, 2-run HR in 4th; 2 RBI, run; Max Kwan, SP, solo HR in 4th, RBI, run; Hebner, B, 2-four, 2 RBI; Apro, B, 2-four, 2B; Donnally, B, three-four. statistics — Seattle Prep 6-four.

Bishop Blanchet 3, Lakeside 2

Lakeside 010 000 1-2 7 1 Bishop Blanchet 012 000 x-3 5 three Kotkins and Markovich; Nick Augustavo, Alex Thorkildsen and Tyler Klansnic. WP — Augustavo (3-2). LP — Kotkins. Sv — Thorkildsen (1). Highlights — Markovich, L, 2-4; Wilson, L, 2-four; Willie Campbell, BB, 2-three, RBI. information — Bishop Blanchet 4-4, 5-5.

NORTHWEST 1A LEAGUE

Archbishop Murphy 11, Concrete four

Arch. Murphy 000 072 2-11 11 2 Concrete 002 200 0- 4 6 2 Kevin Mitchell, Jeff Arkell (5) and Alex Burch; Kyle Wilson, Aldridge (6), Peniger (7) and Ellingson. WP — Mitchell (3-0). LP — Wilson. Highlights-Axel Wolff, AM, 2-four, 2B, 2 RBI; Nick Karthas, AM, 2-5, 2B, 2-run HR in sixth, 2 RBI; Patrick Ackerman, AM, 2-three, 2B, 2 RBI; Sanchez, C, 2-four, 2B, 2-run HR in third, 2 RBI; Wilson, C, 2-2, 2B. statistics-ATM 5-0, eight-0.

NONLEAGUE

Tyee 9, Clover Park 6

Clover Park 015 000 0-6 6 4 Tyee 134 one hundred x-9 9 3 Vaught, Bernardy (four) and N. Damian, M. Willimas (4); Michael Cordova, Ryan Helms (3) and Jared Copenhaver. WP-Helms (2-0). Highlights-M. Williams, CP, 2-three; Shawn Fantin, T, three-three, 3 runs, 2 RBI, 2B; Kyle Howard, T, 2-four, 2B; Justin Copenhaver, T, 2-3, 2 RBI. facts-Tyee 2-four.

Sea. Luth. 12, Quilcene 0 (5 lodge.)

Quilcene 000 00- 0 1 0 Seattle Lutheran 444 0x-12 13 0 B. Starnes, E. Oney (3) and C. Knox, Starnes (3); Jordan Hinton and Paul Greive. WP-Hinton (2-0). LP-Starnes. Highlights-Greive, SL, 3-3, 2-run HR in 2nd, four RBI; Hinton, SL, 2-2, 2 2B, 2 RBI, 5 IP, no ER, 7 Ks, BB; David Sauter, SL, three-3, 2B, 3 RBI, 3 runs. statistics-Seattle Lutheran 4-0, 7-2.

Fastpitch softball

SPSL NORTH

Aub. Riv. three, Kentridge 0 (8 lodge.)

Auburn Riverside 000 000 03-three 6 0 Kentridge 000 000 00-0 4 1 Tana Lingo and Jessi Tangen; Kara Catron and Nicole Dullenty. WP-Lingo (three-2). LP-Catron (2-2). Highlights-Tana Lingo, ok, 4 walks, 4 Ks; Katie Barker, AR, 2-three, run; Shayn Ostlund, AR, 1-4, 2 RBI. statistics-Kentridge 5-three, 5-three; Riverside 6-2, 6-2.

Kentlake 13, Auburn 5

Kentlake 302 001 7-13 13 2 Auburn 012 020 0- 5 8 5 Amy McKean and Malama; Erin Keeley, Khyrsten Holz (7), Erin Keeley (7) and Cassidy Jones. WP-Amy McKean. LP-Erin Keeley (2-3). Highlights-S. Warren, k, 2-4, 3 RBI, three runs, 3B; Kyndra Howard, ok, 2-four, 2 runs, 2 RBI; Amy McKean, okay, three-5, 2 RBI; Katie Burns, k, 2-4, 2 RBI; Cassidy Jones, A, 2-2, 2 RBI; Adriel Foxley, A, 1-2, 2 runs, 2 BB. statistics-Kentlake 6-2, Auburn three-5.

Sumner 12, Tahoma 6

Sumner 334 001 1-12 20 4 Tahoma one hundred ten 010 3- 6 four 4 Lisa Holombo and Allysa Hatch; Kennison and Howard, Fredrick (four). WP-Holombo (2-1). LP-Kennison (0-1). Highlights-Jennifer Heath, S, 2-2, 2 runs, RBI; Jessica Roberts, S, 2-2, 6 RBI, 2-run HR in 1st; Katy Johnson, S, 2-4, RBI, SB; Allysa Hatch, S, 2-4, 2B, RBI; Candyce Hatch, S, 3-5, 2 runs, RBI; Harris, T, 2-four; Landis, T, 1-2, 3 runs. facts-Sumner 6-2, Tahoma 1-6.

Enumclaw 4, Kentwood 3

Kentwood 000 003 0-3 5 0 Enumclaw 001 110 1-4 5 1 Huckins, Eastep (5) and Barabe; Dana corridor, Brittney Osborn (6) and Beth Christensen. WP-Osborn (1-0). LP-Huckins. Highlights-Christensen, E, 2-3, solo HR in third, RBI, run; Sarah young, E, 2-3, run, 2 SB; Turner, ok, 2-2, stroll. information-Enumclaw 6-2.

KINGCO 4A

Lake Washington 1, Bothell 0

Bothell 000 000 0-0 1 1 Lake Washington 000 001 x-1 5 1 Jenna Graponstepar and KC Martin; Shayna Clark and Monica Gonzalez. WP-Clark (7-0). LP-Graponstepar (0-1). Highlights-Shayna Clark, LW, 2-2; Krystal Bentley, LW, RBI single. records-LW eight-1.

Redmond 8, Ballard 1

Ballard 001 000 0-1 2 1 Redmond four hundred 103 x-eight 10 2 B. Hawley and Lindsay Ohm; Caitlyn Bell and Lauren Proctor. WP-Bell (2-1). LP-Hawley. Highlights-Bell, R, 7 IP, 2 hits, no ER, 8 Ks, 2 BB, 1-3; Proctor, R, 2-4, 2B, RBI, 2 runs; Kim Schumaker, R, 2-four, RBI; Kathleen Morris, R, 2-3, 2 RBI; Riley Carolan, R, 1-1, 2 RBI; Ashley Blair, R, 1-1, 2B, RBI, 2 runs. data-Redmond 4-four.

Eastlake 1, Juanita 0 (9 hotel.)

Eastlake 000 000 001-1 three 1 Juanita 000 000 000-0 0 four Caitlin Noble and Anna Woody; Nicole Walker and Samantha Arnold. WP-Noble (1-0). LP-Walker (3-5). Highlights-Lauren Andrewjewzski, E, 2-3; Nicole Walker, J, 9 Ks; Caitlin Noble, E, 18 Ks. statistics-Juanita 3-6, Eastlake 7-0.

Woodinville 10, Roosevelt 2

Woodinville 002 043 1-10 10 1 Roosevelt 000 011 0- 2 four 3 Mollie Greenup and Amanda Weir; Alyssa Meyer, Shannon Westphal (5) and Carrie Thomas. WP — Greenup (4-three). LP — Meyer. Highlights — Caitlin Walker, W, 2-three, 2 RBI, run; Beth Patton, W, 2-4; Destro Keo, W, 2-4, 2 runs, four SB; Jessica Hubly, W, 2-four, RBI; Megan Wyatt, W, 2 runs, 2 SB; Weir, W, 2B, 2 RBI. records — Woodinville 6-four, 6-4; Roosevelt 0-7, 0-7.

KINGCO 3A

Issaquah 1, Interlake 0Interlake 000 000 0 - 0 2 0Issaquah 000 one hundred x - 1 3 1Laura Flint and Church; Brenda Bray and Kellyn Grote. WP- Brenda Bray (6-1). LP- Laura Flint. Highlights- Brenda Bray, Iss, 6 Ks; Julie Jacobsen, Iss, 1-2, RBI; Laura Flint, Int, 6 Ks. facts-Issaquah 8-1.

Skyline 6, Sammamish 0Skyline 001 000 5 - 6 10 0Sammamish 000 000 0 - 0 02 1Jami Harrison and Liza Teichler; Samantha Rice and Katie Jacobsen. WP-Jami Harrison (three-0). LP-Samantha Rice. Highlights-Jami Harrison, Sky, 11 Ks; Remy Kawaguchi, Sky, four-four, 2 runs; Kendra Abernathey, Sky, 2-four, 3 RBI, 2B, run; Adreanne Lewis, Sky, 2-4; Samantha Rice, Samm, 3 Ks; statistics-Skyline 8-2.

Bellevue 6, Cedarcrest 5Cedarcrest 000 05 - 5 05 1Bellevue 200 04 - 6 10 2Whitney Oviatt and Brittany Hinzman; Alyse Zimmer, Elizabeth Sherry (5) and Emily Evanson. WP- Elizabeth Sherry (2-1). LP- Whitney Oviatt. Highlights-Betsey Westerman, C, 2-four; Alice Wang, B, 2-3, 2B; Alyse Zimmer, B, 2-4.

Thursday’s online game

KINGCO 3A

Sammamish three, Bellevue 2 (eight inn.)Sammamish 000 a hundred and ten 01 - 3 5 0Bellevue 000 002 00 - 2 9 1Angela Rice and Katie Jacobsen; Elizabeth Sherry, Alyse Zimmer (4) and Emily Evanson. WP-Rice. LP-Zimmer (1-4). Highlights - Alyssa Watts, S, 2-four, online game-successful RBI; Erin Milligan, B, 2-3; Watts, S, 2B; Porter, S, 2B. facts - Sammamish three-5, Bellevue 2-6. METRO LEAGUE

Holy Names 3, Eastside Catholic 0

Eastside Catholic 000 000 0-0 2 2 Holy Names 002 010 x-3 eight 5 M. McNiss and R. Caalim; Megan Trudell and Meghan Johnson. WP — Trudell (four-2). LP — McNiss. Highlights — Trudell, HN, 7 IP, 2 hits, 7 Ks, 0 BBs; Kathryn Sobotta, HN, 2 RBI; Kay Malcher, HN, 2-three, RBI. statistics — Holy Names 5-2, 5-3.

Seattle Prep 6, Bainbridge 5 (10 resort.)

Bainbridge 002 000 200 1-5 7 5Seattle Prep 020 011 000 2-6 14 four Koller and Hujar; Lisa McNaughton and Lauren Berry. WP-Lisa McNaughton (6-1). LP-Koller. Highlights-McNaughton, SP, 7 Ks, four BB; Aislinn Wyatt, SP, 3-5; Megan Bergman, SP, 2-5, winning RBI; Koller, B, 8 Ks, 0 BB, 2-four. facts-Seattle Prep 7-1, 7-1.

NONLEAGUE

Mount Rainier 3, Peninsula 2 (eight hotel.)

Mount Rainier 010 010 01-3 10 1 Peninsula 010 001 00-2 9 1 Sonja Berg and Ashley Wright; Tyler and Ball. WP-Berg (1-0). LP-Tyler (0-1). Highlights-Katy Campbell, MR, 2-3, RBI; Jenny Odegard, MR, 2-4, 2 runs; Berg, MR, 4 Ks.

Quilcene 6, Seattle Lutheran 2

Quilcene 204 000 0-6 four 0 Seattle Lutheran 100 001 0-2 7 2 Sierra McCoy and Cyndy Bacchus; Heather Corbin, Hayley Itter (three) and Jenny Knick. WP-McCoy. LP-Corbin (0-1). Highlights-Blair Bloomfield, Q, 1-3, 2 RBI, run; Shayla Handly, Q, 2-3, 2 RBI; Itter, SL, 12 Ks, 0 BBs, 1-2; Knick, SL, 1-three, 2B, run. facts-Quilcene three-four, Seattle Lutheran four-4.

Boys tennis

SEAMOUNT LEAGUE

King Division

Kennedy four, Renton 0

Singles — Drew Kauzlerich, ok, beat Khoa Pham, 6-three, 6-three; Matt Joens, ok, beat Travis Suzka, 6-1, 6-0.

Doubles — Jaren Willis-Kenny Arntz, k, beat Yaochiem Chao-Andrew S., 6-2, 6-0; John Holland-Nathan Panelo, ok, beat Marko Lucio-Robert Viliflor, 7-5, 6-1.

NONLEAGUE

At Charles Wright 5, bear Creek 0

Singles — Greg Beeman, CW, beat Jonas Michel, 6-0, 6-2; Charlie Hyde, CW, beat Erik Ball, 6-0, 6-1.

Doubles — Nic Wohns-Gil Kim, CW, beat Jason Rehfeld-Kenn Miyake; Andrew Evans-Andrew Wark, CW, beat Yosuke Ikeda-prosperous Snyder, 6-0, 6-3; Perrin Oba-Baron Kuhn, CW, beat Stephen Imhoff-Alex Huff, 6-1, 6-2.

women tennis

SEAMOUNT LEAGUE

King Division

Kennedy four, Renton 0

Singles — Mimi Martin, okay, beat Desirae Villa, 6-2, 6-1; Cenedra Martin, k, beat Darlene Carlos, 6-four, 6-1.

Doubles — Nicole Reardan-Jai Blood, okay, beat Ladda Southala-Vincy Chan, 6-0, 6-1; Stefanie Grothro-Vivianne Henke, k, beat Latrina wood-Carmela D'Anna, 6-1, 6-1.

Coed tennis

METRO LEAGUE

Seattle Prep eleven, Eastside Catholic 0

women singles — Caitlin Coakley, SP, beat Melissa Dingler 6-0, 6-0; Chelsea Sweetin, SP, beat Alli Rambaldoni 6-0, 6-0; Abby Elliot, SP, beat Taryn Matthews 6-0, 6-1.

women doubles — Casey Pleas-Caitlin O'Keefe, SP, beat Lauren Miller-Lemon — Samantha White 6-0, 6-0; Kayleigh Pleas-Caitlin Elsner, SP, beat Maren Jones-Emma Curran 6-2, 6-1.

Boys singles - James Truitt, SP, beat Brian Drum 6-0, 6-2; John Bailey, SP, beat Alex Shaeffer 6-1, 6-2; Peter Brown, SP, beat Graham maintaining 6-0, 6-0.

Boys doubles - Ross Donnelly-Charlie Burke, SP, beat AJ Dingler-Rob Cooper 6-2, 6-2; John Iwanski-Adrian Fletcher, SP, beat Tom Dowell-Brent Lyons 6-0, 6-2.

blended doubles - Prep won by using forfeit.

Boys song

NONLEAGUE

Highline sixty three, at White River fifty nine, Peninsula fifty eight

Shot put — Dunn, WR, 46 9-1/2. Discus — Davis, H, 118-eight. Javelin — Melvin, WR, one hundred fifty. excessive bounce — Melvin, WR, 5-four. long bounce — Reynolds, H, 19-11. Triple bounce — Thomas, WR, mark unavailable. Pole vault — Knopik, WR, 12-0. 110 hurdles — Rodeter, H, 15.ninety three. 300 hurdles — Rodeter, H, forty two.54. a hundred — Hubbard, P, 11.24. 200 — Miller, P, 23.forty one. 400 — Fosberg, H, fifty three.05. 800 — Enos, WR, 2:08.76. 1,600 — Sorenson, WR, four:fifty five.01. 3,200 — Heinson, H, 10:19.17. four hundred relay — Peninsula, forty five.59. 1,600 relay — Peninsula, three:forty three.24.

girls song

NONLEAGUE

Highline seventy three, Peninsula sixty seven,

at White River 46

Shot put — Hornbuckle, H, 30-9. Discus — Sage, P, 89-3. Javelin — Hornbuckle, H, 116-1. excessive leap — Hill, WR, four-eight. lengthy bounce — McCarter, WR, 14-10. Triple start — Obguawba, H, 30-eleven. Pole vault — Sage, P, 9-0. one hundred hurdles — Obguawba, H, 18.sixty three. 300 hurdles — Obguawba. a hundred — Petptca, P, 12.67. 200 — McGraw, P, 27.43. 400 — Thrasher, WR, 1:01.65. 800 — Draper, H, 2:27.three. 1,600 — Miller, WR, 5:fifty five.61. 3,200 — Parker, H, 13:19.forty two. four hundred relay — Peninsula, fifty one.ninety five. 800 relay — Peninsula, 1:50.45. 1,600 relay — Peninsula, 4:25.1.

Boys lacrosse

Bainbridge 15, Mercer Island 9 (Highlights — Sam Cameron, B, three desires, 2 assists; Ross Maloney, B, 2 goals, aid; Robert Vasta, B, 2 desires, help; Spencer Evans, B, 2 goals; Luke Larson, MI, three desires, support; Brad Gillis, MI, 2 desires, 2 assists; Alan Chirls, MI, 2 desires; David Sandman, MI, 2 goals; Jereme Raquepaqu, MI, 17 saves. facts — Bainbridge 5-0, MI 4-2).


Arkansas 3 Iowa 2

2010 Arkansas SoftballIowa vs ArkansasFeb 27, 2010 at Columbus, Ga. (South Commons)

Iowa 2 (6-6) participant ab r h rbi bb so po a lob Digmann, Lindsey 3b 4 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 Leichsenring, Taylor rf 4 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 three Carmody, Chelsey 2b four 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 Brown,Katie 1b three 0 1 1 1 0 8 0 2 Ochoa, Stephanie cf/dh 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Valentine, Sam pr 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Schuelke, Jenny lf 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 Akers, Ashley pr 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Spiering, Sarah c 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 Goschie, Jordan pr 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Keim, Katie ss 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 2 Watkins, Liz ph 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Dowling, Johnnie dh/cf 3 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 Zust, Amanda p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Lyon, Chelsea p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Totals 28 2 7 2 4 3 18 7 9 Arkansas three (eight-5) player ab r h rbi bb so po a lob Jessica Bachkora cf 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 Brittany Griffiths ss 2 1 0 0 1 0 4 1 1 Miranda Dixon dh 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sandra Smith 1b three 1 2 1 0 0 6 0 0 Lindsey Wells pr 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Courtney Breault 2b three 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 Brittany Robison rf 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Tori Mort rf 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Jessica Robison 3b 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 Jessica Waddle c 3 0 1 0 0 1 53 0 Stephanie Brewer pr 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Becca Carden lf 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Chelsea Cohen p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 four 0 Kim Jones p 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Totals 24 three 4 1 three 2 21 13 6 ranking via Innings R H E ----------------------------------------- Iowa................ 000 a hundred and ten 0 - 2 7 2 Arkansas............ 000 201 X - 3 four 2 ----------------------------------------- E – Keim; Dowling; Smith; Carden. LOB – IOWA 9; ARK 6. 2B – Digmann. SB – Akers. CS – Digmann. Iowa ip h r er bb so wp bk hbp ibb ab bf fo moveZust, Amanda three.1 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 13 14 four fiveLyon, Chelsea L,2-3 2.2 3 1 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 11 13 4 2 Arkansas ip h r er bb so wp bk hbp ibb ab bf fo moveChelsea Cohen W,1-0 6.0 7 2 1 3 1 0 1 0 0 25 28 eight 7 Kim Jones S,1 1.0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 three four 0 1 Win – Cohen (1-0). Loss – Lyon (2-3). retailer – Jones, okay (1). WP – Zust; Lyon. BK – Cohen. PB – Spiering.

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administration OF ELASMOBRANCH FISHERIES IN SOUTH AFRICA

Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries

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D.W. JappSea Fisheries research InstitutePrivate Bag X2, Roggebaai, Cape city, Republic of South Africa

1. INTRODUCTION

South Africa has a coastline of essentially 3000km extending from the mouth of the Orange River on the southern African west coast to Ponta do Ouro on the Mozambique border on the East African coast. The 200 n.m. fishing zone (EEZ), declared in 1977, covers a local of about 1 one hundred fifty five 000km2. South African foremost industrial fisheries are although discovered within the Benguela area on the west coast (east of 20°E) on the Agulhas bank on the southern tip of the Continent (Japp et al. 1994). Chondrichthyans are caught across the complete Southern African coast, youngsters distributions of both goal and bycatch species can also lengthen past the boundaries of everyday commercially exploited grounds. The distribution and taxonomy of chondrichthyan species present in South African waters have been comprehensively described with approximately seventy nine accepted endemic species said (Compagno 1994). target fisheries for sharks are limited to industrial grounds and encompass three foremost bottom-trawling areas. These are the west coast extending from Cape Agulhas (20°E) north and west to about 30°S, the south/east coast, including the Agulhas financial institution extending east from Cape Agulhas to about 27°E and the Natal coast extending north along the east coast from approximately 29°S (determine 1). These areas encompass three important business fisheries that have large shark bycatches, i.e. the deep-sea trawl hake-directed fishery, the inshore sole/hake-directed fishery and the Natal crustacean fishery. Shark catches range enormously between these areas and fisheries because of distinct bathymetric and oceanographic characteristics. The shark fauna on the east coast of South Africa, for instance, is subtropical in personality and is influenced by the warm Mozambique latest. The fauna on the west coast is extra temperate and is influenced via the cool Benguela current device with its pulsed seasonal upwelling regime.

determine 1

enviornment and reference facets described in paper (after Smale 1991)

All prevalent styles of exploitation of sharks in South African waters are introduced in table 1. including goal fisheries for shark, shark bycatch in different goal fisheries, incidental shark catches (defensive nets) or, greater these days, as vacationer sights (cage diving). obviously few direct target fisheries for shark exist in South Africa, and people that do, such because the gill net and local shark longline industries, are probably greater appropriately described as multi-species fisheries, having advanced from the fashioned intention of targeting sharks.

table 1

actions affecting sharks in South African waters

exercise area Nature Key reference Offshore trawl West Coast, Agulhas bank to shelf edge (600m depth) Bycatch best Compagno et al. 1991Japp et al. 1994 Prawn trawl Natal East Coast to 600m Bycatch best Fennessey 1994b Inshore trawl South and East Coast to 200m Bycatch simplest Smale et al. 1993Japp et al. 1994Kroese et al. 1995 Hake longline West and South Coast to 500m Bycatch best Japp et al. 1995 Shark longline West and South Coast focused Penny and Punt 1992Kroese et al. 1995 home tuna longline Offshore to EEZ Bycatch Penny and Punt 1992Kroese et al. 1995 international tuna longline Offshore to past EEZ focused/bycatch Penny and Punt 1992Kroese et al. 1995 leisure line Inshore to 200m Bycatch Kroese et al. 1995Penny et al. 1997 business handline Inshore to 200m Bycatch/focused Kroese et al. 1995Penny et al. 1997 Gill netWest Coast centered Freer 1992Kroese et al. 1995 seashore seine West and South Coast targeted/Bycatch Lamberth et al. 1994Kroese et al. 1995 defensive nets East Coast Incidental Dudley and Cliff 1993 Cage diving/tourism South Coast Cage diving a lot of mimeos 1993-1997 (unpubl.)

2. THE resource AND THE FISHERIES

2.1 Species composition of the fisheries

several longline-directed fisheries exist (table 1). These include the backside hake-directed longline fishery (Japp 1994), the pelagic longline (local fleet) shark-directed fishery and the tuna-directed (overseas and local fleets) pelagic longline trade. These fisheries, with appreciate to the proportions exploited, have the maximum degree of shark targeting. particulars of the shark catches in each of those fisheries had been posted via Kroese et al. (1995).

goal species caught essentially for overseas markets, are the soupfin shark (Galeorhinus galeus), the houndsharks (Mustelus spp.), the blue shark (Prionace glauca), cowsharks (Notorhynchus cepedianus) and the mako (Isurus oxyrhincus). within the domestic pelagic (tuna-directed) longline fishery it has been possible to determine the goal species (reference to targeting is just a little ambiguous as tuna are the simple species, but shark are additionally centered and are incredibly valued). foreign pelagic tuna-directed catches had been extra elaborate to verify than the domestic fleet as massive-scale under-reporting is standard to turn up. The foreign vessels (in general from Japan and the Republic of China) capture species of a more oceanic nature such as the mako, blue, silky (Carcharinus falciformes), oceanic white tip (C. longimanus), threshers (Alopias vulpinus) and porbeagle sharks (Lamna nasus) ie. the inshore species such as the hound sharks and soupfin are excluded. Discard ratios are estimated to be excessive (Bonfil 1994, Kroese et al. 1995) if in comparison to well-known trap prices in other areas of the area. A extra contemporary fishery by which small quantities of shark are also frequent to be caught is the longline fishery in Antarctic waters for patagonian toothfish (Dissosotichus eleginoides). although, no details of the shark bycatch in this fishery are available however are mentioned to encompass normally chimaeras, greenland sharks, porbeagles and some skate species.

probably the surest impact on condrichthyans in South African waters is from the enormous bottom-trawl fisheries directing at the Cape hakes Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis. The offshore and inshore fisheries goal hake (TAC 151 000t), sole (TAC 872t) and horse mackerel (upper trap restrict of 55 000t). Annual demersal landings, including all shark and other bycatch within the South African trawl fisheries varies from yr to 12 months and in 1995 approximated 180 000t (In fresh years this determine has been said to be neatly above 200 000t). Japp (1997) estimated discards of elasmobranchs in South African bottom trawl operations at between eighty–ninety eight% (depending on the enviornment), i.e. between 2–20% of the sharks caught in trawl nets are processed. Shark is therefore hardly processed on trawlers regardless of the regularly significant portions caught. more currently however, export fees for shark have expanded (along with a beneficial rand-$ trade price) making shark products more attractive. Species processed on trawlers include the biscuit skate (Raja straeleni), the soupfin and the St Joseph (Callorhinchus capensis). the most usual trawl-caught shark on the Agulhas bank is the dogshark (Squalus megalops), whose inventory has been estimated to have a comparatively high biomass (Japp et al. 1994). Landings of this species have accelerated, however they are generally regarded too small for processing and marketing. certainly the trawl seize of shark landed is a small proportion of the precise total chondrichthyan catch with many species discarded [see Compagno et al. (1991) for other sharks species caught in trawls]. The prawn-directed trawl fishery differs somewhat in their species seize composition to the larger industrial backside-trawl fisheries. Fennessey (1994b) suggested noticeably on the elasmobranch bycatch in the Natal prawn fishery, and mentioned that catches had been dominated by way of small rays. Smale (1997) suggested that the annual shark trap in Natal waters (all fisheries) is insignificant compared to the better hake-directed trawl fisheries, with the dominant species landed being grey sharks, of which essentially the most usual is Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky shark).

Gill and seaside-seine internet fisheries have operated on the South African west coast on account that 1652 and a directed gill-net fishery for St Joseph shark (C. capensis) became initiated in 1980. other elasmobranchs caught in gill nets (now not necessarily bycatch as they're also an important economic element of the multi-species shark-directed fishery) consist of soupfin and hound sharks and additionally, reckoning on place, sandsharks (Rhinobatus annulatus). seaside Seine web fisheries goal in the main bony fish species, despite the fact tremendous portions of elasmobranchs are often caught (Lamberth et al. 1994), comprising on common 70% skates and rays including sandshark, bull rays (Myliobatis aquila), and blue rays (Dasyatus chrysonata). These are always not retained.

leisure line fisheries turn up across the whole South Africa coast and consist of shore anglers (rod and line), skiboats (rod and line), estuarine fishermen (easy tackle, rod and line) and spearfishermen. Sharks are commonly not favored by recreational fishermen however they're focused appreciably in competitions. In Natal, the sharks most frequently centered by leisure fishermen encompass dusky sharks (and the carefully linked bronze whaler C. brachyurus), sandsharks, milksharks (Rhizoprionodon acutus) and skates (Dasyatidae). Houndsharks (Mustelus spp.) are also often caught in large numbers in estuaries.

commercial line fisheries have historically targeted sharks. as a result of totally variable markets, shark catches have fluctuated dramatically in the past, despite the fact due to the fact that 1991 there has been a gradual enhance in catches. favourite species consist of the soupfin and houndsharks, and additionally the dusky sharks (C. obscurus), copper sharks or bronze whaler, spotted gully sharks (Triakus megalopterus), threshers, cowsharks (Hexanchidae), dogfish (Squalus spp.), catsharks (Poroderma spp.) and skates (Dasyatidae). aside from the soupfin, hound and bronze whalers, most other species are discarded.

Two other non-directed fisheries exist which require administration. These are the shielding shark nets around the ordinary bathing shores on the east coast and the turning out to be vacationer shark cage-diving industry on the southern and western Cape Coast. The incidental bycatches within the shielding nets were smartly documented (Dudley and Compagno 1994) and raised some wonderful management considerations. These fisheries are reviewed by way of Dudley and Gribble (this volume). further, the cage-diving situation has brought new views in the shark trade with some glaring management implications. appropriate law and enforcement is in the procedure of being formulated. The considerations re the talents impact (e.g. mortality, behavioural adjustments feeding adaptation) on the white shark (Carcharodon carcharius) as smartly as the lucrative monetary returns have resulted in heated debate and questions of acceptable management and the place controlling authority responsibility should still be (exploitation, tourism, conservation, and many others). Shark cage diving is probably going to turn into a huge tourist attraction, but a major recent (1998) increase within the number of shark attacks resulting in a spate of deaths (bathers, surfers and divers) has highlighted consumer battle (is shark cage diving and chumming attracting extra sharks? and many others.).

continued deployment of the shark barrier nets as well as the shark cage diving industry is probably going to affect the coastal vacationer industry and both issues latest new and wonderful administration challenges a good way to eventually need to be built-in with other useful resource control measures.

2.2 construction, existing popularity and skill of prosecuting the fisheries

2.2.1 The harvesting procedure

Early evolution of the shark fisheries: there has been hobby in shark fishing in South African waters on the grounds that the arrival of the early settlers, but best after the starting of this century has business exploitation been recorded. Fishing for sharks and the skills for more advantageous exploitation become first said through Von Bonde (1934) who estimated that at the time, shark fishing and associated by means of-products might generate up to £100 000. Directed shark fishing started in the early Nineteen Thirties off Durban in Natal (the usage of gill nets). These early catches are poorly documented, youngsters Kroese (pers com.) estimated an annual creation of 136t in 1931 and over 1000t with the aid of 1940 (desk 2). The 2nd World conflict gave rise to demand for diet A as a fitness supplement for soldiers and led without delay to an increase in shark fishing as the commonplace provide of cod liver oil from the Northern Hemisphere became severely disrupted through the battle (Von Bonde 1934, Kroese et al. 1995). A shark fishery became initiated in 1941, exploiting basically soupfin shark. youngsters, facts on catches are sparse for the 1939–1945 length and the earliest documentation on shark catches is pronounced in Lees (1969) who gave total annual creation estimates of shark liver oil in opposition t the end of the battle. Later, the Division of Sea Fisheries (1949, 1950) documented shark catches for 1948 (25000 sharks caught). gear deployed blanketed boats of up to 288 ton displacement using handlines, gill nets and brief longlines. Catches as high as 1500t per go back and forth have been made and increased sharply from 1951 (determine 2). concern for the resource resulted in the formation of a Sea Fisheries Shark Advisory Committee in 1948 to investigate the soupfin shark fishery which resulted within the introduction of a minimum mesh measurement of 9" in 1948 (Division of Fisheries 1950).

table 2Summary of old shark catches in South African waters in tonnes together with all trawl fisheries (inshore, offshore, prawn), all web fisheries (seashore seine and gill web), line and longline and others together with incidental catches in protecting nets and early estimates of shark catches in line with diet A creation (information supplied by Kroese and Wilke of the sea Fisheries research Institute. Cape town) 12 months Traw netLine & longline different complete1931   - - 136.0 136.0 1941   - - 1367.6 1367.6 1942   - - 3100.0 3100.0 1943   - - 5674.3 5674.3 1944   - - 4607.3 4607.three 1945   - - 5145.6 5145.6 1946   - - 4109.2 4109.2 1947 56. - - 5931.4 5987.4 1948 forty nine. - - 6250.0 6299.7 1949 forty one. - - 2500.0 2541.four 1950 39. - - 1100.0 1139.0 1951 36. - - 1826.3 1863.2 1952 35. - - 3555.0 3590.nine1953 88. - 1351.three 1149.7 2589.7 1954 97. - 3040.51162.eight 4300.4 1955 133. - 1163.4 1259.4 2556.6 1956 184. - 1496.1 1310.7 2991.51957 ninety three. - 2096.0 1508.7 3697.91958 106. - 2594.2 1649.1 4349.6 1959 168. - 1665.0 1201.93035.three 1960 82. - 2861.0 1779.1 4722.3 1961 39. - 3209.0 - 3248.6 1962 84. - 2964.6 - 3049.1 1963 239. - 2172.5 - 2411.6 1964 75. - 2623.0 - 2698.6 1965 25. - 2424.four - 2450.2 1966   - 3424.6 - 3424.6 1967 111. - 2848.9 - 2960.eight 1968 fifty six. - 905.3 - 962.2 1969 39. - 406.1 20.0 645.five1970 108. - 383.7 - 492.three 1971 124. - 221.8 - 346.1 1972 71 - 477.2 - 548.four 1973 52. - 217.5 - 270.2 1974 70. - 162.0 - 232.4 1975 143. - 161.0 284.five588.five1976 373. - 198.0 59.5sixty three.2 1977 700. - 195.three 298.6 1194.0 1978 1277. - 1196.7 842.three 3316.6 1979 1859. - 680.0 106.0 2645.0 1980 1659. - 595.0 106.0 2360.0 1981 1772. 263.0 206.3 106.0 2347.three 1982 2305. 156.0 one hundred forty five.1 106.0 2712.1 1983 2102. 542.0 62.4 106.0 2812.four 1984 2155. 478.1 forty two.2 106.0 2781.three 1985 2012. 687.0 103.2 106.0 2908.2 1986 1664. 485.6 178.3 106.0 2433.nine1987 1622. 509.four 250.4 106.0 2487.eight 1988 1728. 409.7 232.eight 106.0 2476.five1989 1720. 478.three 249.5106.0 2553.8 1990 2061. 221.three 230.7 106.0 2619.0 1991 1765. 294.4 376.1 106.0 2541.51992 1876. 208.three 697.0 106.0 2887.three 1993 1969. 346.0 688.9106.0 3109.91994 1257. 39.0 556.1 106.0 1958.1 1995 1015. 114.0 305.3 106.0 1540.three 1996 1125. seventy eight.0 233.five106.0 1542.51997 1408. 91.0 315.nine106.0 1920.9

determine 2

pronounced landings of chondrichthyans in South African separated by means of fishery type

creation of vitamin A step by step grew to be unprofitable, besides the fact that children fishing endured unless 1975 with the final reported creation of nutrition A in 1975 (Director of Sea Fisheries 1980). These traits are illustrated in figure 2 where the estimates of total seize, based on diet A production from 1941–1951, are shown and encompass line and gill net estimates between 1951–1975 (records supplied by Kroese) At its height in 1948, the nutrition A fishery was estimated to have caught over 6000t of shark (in the main soupfin) and from 1951–1970 fluctuated between 1000 – 3000t/yr. as much as this point little or no trawl catches have been said. prior to the declaration of the 200 nautical mile fishing zone in 1977, massive over exploitation via foreign trawl fleets took region in South African waters, principally in the Benguela location, the place hake catches were stated to have exceeded over 1 000 000t. The shark trade started relocating far from oil creation to selling shark as food fish with the first studies of 200t of dried shark being sent to crucial Africa in 1954. revenue of frozen shark to Europe, the some distance East and Australia progressively extended. a significant drop in income of dried meat occurred in 1968–1972 because of issue over the high mercury levels in shark meat. however demersal trawlers all started touchdown shark once more in 1979. simplest considering that the declaration of the EEZ became a measure of administration and handle within the massive industrial trawl fisheries introduced. the first TACs within the trawl fishery had been brought in 1978 (for hake and sole) and it is only in view that then that legit stories of elasmobranch catches in trawls have been submitted.

2.2.2 contemporary seize, effort and fleet features

2.2.2.1 The trawl fishery

The old growth of the shark fisheries in South Africa is illustrated in figure 2. evidently, the greatest sector exploiting shark is the enormous-scale business backside-trawl fishery. As noted before, the specific influence on the inventory from these fisheries is drastically larger if the discard proportions are additionally considered. The Inshore Trawl Fishery based on the south coast (Japp et al. 1994) has a relatively small total seize (14 000t about) in comparison to the 180 000t (ordinary) of the Offshore Trawl Fishery. youngsters, the inshore sector lands the maximum share of shark. This can also be attributed to a couple of elements of which availability is the most important. Inshore fisheries often are limited to interior of the 110m isobath and fish virtually exclusively on the Agulhas financial institution. Abundance of shark, in particular the favored species, (together with soupfin shark and biscuit skate) is high in these areas. The Agulhas financial institution is commonplace for its high species range, mixture of temperate and sub-tropical waters and incredibly variable substrate (Japp et al 1994.)

given that the 200 n.m. EEZ assertion, trawl fleet qualities have modified vastly. The massive overseas factory trawler freezers of the former communist bloc states (e.g. Russia, Bulgaria, Poland) in addition to some European fleets (e.g. Spanish and Portuguese) have been banned from fishing within South African territorial waters. Fishing effort declined sharply and changed into adopted by a conservative management approach geared toward rebuilding the hake shares, the basic business species. This method continues and the hake TAC has regularly accelerated from under one hundred 000t to its current stage of 151 000t (1997). under this administration regime, little handle turned into placed on non-quota bycatch species, of which shark comprised a relatively small a part of the whole landings (<1%).

Vessels within the offshore fleet (a typical of 100 vessels in the fleet) latitude from the smaller moist-fish stern trawler (30–50m in size, <1000grt) to the bigger factory freezer vessels (>50m and >1000grt). in general otter trawls are used and operations are carried out very nearly completely from the west coast ports of Cape town and Saldanha Bay. Mesh regulations aimed at hake (110mm minimum stretched mesh) doubtless don't have any choice impact on sharks, i.e. all sizes and species are retained Effort degrees are managed via vessel licensing only, with so far as possible, problem on the build up of excess capacity (aimed at optimising the hassle stages required to seize the hake TAC). The utility of F0.2 become intended to rebuild hake biomass to 60% of its estimated pristine inventory dimension and to simultaneously boost seize charges. This has to a point been finished, but no longer handiest have trap fees enhanced slowly, but more and more more desirable portions of bycatch had been landed. a couple of elements are believed to have caused this, reminiscent of increased vessel effectivity, improved abundance of non-goal species, multiplied targeting on non-quota species and, most importantly, retention of a stronger share of bycatch. here is believed to be end result of the extra efficient utilisation and accelerated demand (with improved returns) for bycatch. besides the fact that children a huge element of the bycatch is shark, they have been a relatively minor component of the full trawl landings on account that 1976, i.e. discarding is high.

The smaller inshore fishery has been affected in a similar approach to the deep-sea fleet. Inshore vessels are often smaller than their offshore counterparts with the majority between 20—30m (33 vessels in complete). Most are stem trawlers, although traditionally the majority of the fleet were side-trawlers. Operations are carried out in the main from the smaller south coast ports of Mossel Bay, Gansbaai and Port Elizabeth. Inshore vessels aren't confined to depth (the offshore fleet don't seem to be authorized to fish shallower than 110m) and also most effective have a 75mm stretched mesh limit. This may account partially for the higher shark catch, but commonly the reasons outlined before are assumed to be the essential contributing element. The greatest element of the inshore shark capture contains the biscuit skate (wings and hound sharks) are being increasingly retained. In 1995, shark comprised 0.6% (84t), and skate 6.1% (934t) of the entire inshore landings (15 265t). via comparison in the same 12 months, the deep-sea fishery landed simplest 39t of shark species, which become <1% of the full landings (159 311t).

in comparison to the inshore and offshore hake-directed fisheries, the Natal prawn fishery is relatively small, touchdown 511t in 1995, of which no shark landings were pronounced (inclusive of small <1m lengthy sharks discarded at sea). statistics of early shark catches are terrible with some reports in 1931/32 when catches comprised on the whole of colossal tiger (Galeocerdo cuvieri) and zambezi sharks (Carcharhinus leucas). Thereafter effort is said within the Nineteen Forties and shifted to the Western Cape (Saldanha Bay, False Bay and Gansbaai) concentrated on soupfin shark for the diet A market.

2.2.2.2 the road and longline fisheries

The “line apparatus sector” component of the full shark landings is proven in determine 2. This neighborhood, if combined, makes up the second biggest equipment sector (after trawls) exploitating sharks. selected allows (“L” or “Shark enables”) are issued for the directed focused on of shark the use of longlines through the South African department of Sea Fisheries. Between 1991–1994, 31 allows for were issued annually, and in 1995 the quantity increased to 35. No effort, or quota manage, is enforced, youngsters allows are restricted to smaller “tuna” with the intention of augmenting the out-of-season activities of these vessels. generally, vessels are <30m in length and deploy backside longlines with as much as 3000 hooks per set in water depths from 50–450m. South African shark allow holders target predominantly massive pelagic shark species, including the mako, blue shark and soupfin. Vessels function generally from Cape city, however undertaking is directed seasonally on the South Coast (Mossel Bay landings). A recent building is an try to reduce the number of foreign tuna longline let holders and to enhance the allows for issued to local fishermen. In 1998 thirty tuna makes it possible for had been issued to “locals” for tuna directed longlining. besides the fact that children sharks are still caught, the concern of these permits is incredibly contentious considering most of the effort is directed on the profitable swordfish market.

international tuna-directed longline fishers additionally make the most sharks (assumed bycatch). Effort is seasonal, following the migration routes of the target tuna species, i.e. with vessels entering into and out of the South Africa fishing zones, generally from August to November. In 1997, foreign tuna allows for were issued to 90 eastern and 30 Republic of China vessels, however now not all had been lively inside the South Africa fishing zone. Of the estimated 10 000t total capture pronounced by using these vessels in 1994, best 1.7 – 6.7% turned into shark (eastern figures most effective). A 115t live weight (shark) seize became reported by way of foreign vessels in 1994. Kroese et al. (1995) estimated that 753t is probably a greater consultant trap, i.e. an eighty five% discard share.

Hake and kingklip (Genypterus capensis) backside-directed longlining has a small shark bycatch. in the duration 1983–1989 all the way through when an experimental kingklip-directed fishery operated, Japp (1993) recorded imply annual shark landings in this fishery of 73t. This changed into an obvious gross underestimate on account of wide under-reporting and discarding on the time. in a similar way, the hake-directed experimental fishery from 1994–1997 (using demersal traces) said best small quantities of shark landings. apparatus deployed in these two fisheries became identical with vessels working in depths from 100–600m and taking pictures from 2000 to 17 000 hooks per day (depending on vessel measurement and enviornment). the most closely fished areas have been off the southwestern tip of the Cape of decent Hope in about 300–400m water depth, and on the south—east coast off plettenberg Bay in 250–350m water depth (Japp 1995). The skills for this fishery to take larger quantities of shark is excessive however bycatch is proscribed to 10% kingklip and 10% other species (including shark). on the time of submission of this report the hake-directed fishery became a managed fishery and a 6400t hake longline quota granted. Assuming a 10% bycatch, the demersal longline-directed shark catches are unlikely to exceed 640t though an amount this excessive is improbable.

leisure and commercial line fishers also make the most shark. Operations are in most cases shore-based or from small ski-boats (<10m) working from small boat harbours and beaches out along the entire coastline. These fisheries traditionally focused bony fish species, but with the sharply declining catches of the conventional “linefish” species, as neatly because the improved market for shark meat, concentrated on on sharks has turn into more well-known considering that 1991 (Penney et al. 1991). Operators with small boats are frequently confined to short distances from their domestic base, however some higher industrial vessels fish extra widely and for longer intervals (up to per week). equipment is limited to rod/hand line and to a maximum of 15 hooks per line. The leading species focused are the soupfin, hound and bronze whalers sharks. Catches of line-caught shark differ from area to enviornment and seasonally with the largest proportion landed within the Cape (90%) area and the remainder in Natal. Between 1991 and 1993 said landings of shark in the line fishery numerous between 183 – 524t. In 1995 and 1996 a total of 503t and 299t respectively become landed. despite the fact, the seize returns of this sector are extremely unreliable and it will also be assumed that big beneath-reporting happens.

2.2.2.3 net fisheries (shore-primarily based)

business internet fisheries are discovered mainly around the Cape coast and are almost low-effort subsistence fisheries. Shark-directed gill netting for St Joseph is completed on the Cape west coast, for instance, and in a large number of estuaries and river mouths. Nets are of differing kinds and construction and consist of surface flow nets, anchored set-nets and seashore-seine nets. seaside seine nets are deployed either by means of dragging the web through the surf, or the use of a small boat, and then hauling via hand or car. bottom-set gill nets used for St Joseph are 75m long, 2.28m deep with a stretched mesh of 17.6cm. Catches of sharks in both the gill and seine internet fisheries are low and in 1993 included 309t of St Joseph, 2t of soupfin, 26t of rays and 9t of different shark species. Catches in seine nets comprise mainly juveniles (Lamberth et al. 1994). Sharks are additionally caught by the way within the shielding nets on the Natal coast, with landings estimated at 106t/yr for the reason that 1989.

3. ECONOMICS AND MARKETS

three.1 historic markets

The financial talents of shark fishing become first mentioned through von Bonde (1934) who referred to that pretty much the complete shark carcass could be used for quite a few products equivalent to meat, dermis (shagreen), fins, fertilizer and oils. As mentioned earlier, the creation of the 2nd World warfare and the demand for diet A turned into in all probability the single biggest stimulus for exploiting shark during the past. towards the end of the 2nd World warfare South Africa was producing 6 million vitamin A instruments per yr valued at £300 000 (Lees 1969). Thereafter, within the Nineteen Fifties, shark meat (trunks) changed into exported to other countries in Africa. Markets in Australia and the Medittereanean nations additionally opened up within the 1960s until the “mercury scare” in 1968. Shark exports overseas and to Africa in consequence declined and by means of 1972 were minimal although shark fin exports to the a ways East continue to be a constructive export product. often shark fishing has by no means enjoyed a high profile, competing in South Africa with an abundance of different marine components, certainly the tremendous business trawl operations focussing on the whitefish market (native and export). all through the ultimate ten years shark exports from South Africa have begun to raise again. This could be attributed to several factors, together with:

  • leisure of the mercury considerations with more beneficial satisfactory handle and trying out
  • political exchange making exporting of local items to international locations similar to Australia viable
  • beneficial change quotes for exporting, and
  • increased demand for shark meat distant places.
  • three.2 local markets

    At present, lots of the shark processing is accomplished in and round Cape city in areas where most of the fish are landed. Estimated landings, landed cost and wholesale price for 1994 and 1995 by way of species and fishery is given in table 3 (compiled by way of the economics unit of department of Sea Fisheries - Cape town).

    generally the massive commercial trawl operations do not procedure a good deal shark which is finished specially by using small localised factories that have developed specific distant places markets and joint venture arrangements. a lot of these factories are located almost about the landing aspects, reminiscent of in St Helena Bay (near the gill-web fisheries), in Cape town (near lots of the “line and longline” catchers) and Gansbaai (small localised line and net fishers). The actual dimension of the markets is problematic to decide. in the community, small amounts are offered during the nation in the kind of frozen fish, dried fish (“biltong”) or smoked. most of the inshore trawled shark is also sold in the community, together with skate wings (“Ocean Fillets”) and St Joseph (“Silver Flake”); however, the leading market is for export product.

    desk 3

    industrial catches of shark (1994/95) in South African waters - Landings and Values (De Swardt 1997)

    Fishery Nominal catch (t) 1994 & 1995 Species Landed value (rand/t) 1994 & 1995 complete cost (rand-wholesale) Offshore trawl 37 & 33 St Joseph & shark 430 & 460 13 000 & 13 000 Inshore trawl 1121 & 934 Skate 800 & 860 224 000 & 201 000 Inshore trawl 116 & 84 Shark 430 & 460 21 000 & 16 000 Inshore trawl 234 & 227 St Joseph 430 & 460 one hundred and one 000 & 104 000 Line & longline 498 & 298 Shark 2200 & 2500 109 800 & 745 000 Nets (gill & seine) 32 & 139 St Joseph 600 & one thousand 43 000 & 200 000 Nets (gill & seine) 6 & 9Shark 1500 & 2000 9 000 & 19 000 whole2044 & 1724 All - 1 509 000 & 1 298 000

    3.3 Export markets

    Frozen shark meat (trunks generally) and dried fins are exported. The leading consumers of frozen shark are Australia, Greece and Italy where a in shape demand for shark meat has persisted. other smaller markets exist, e.g. one South African processor purchases St Joseph from the internet fishers at R1–10/kg ($0.23/kg) and exports fillets to the Democratic Republic of Congo at R8–00/kg ($1.66/kg). other shark species exported consist of fillets of the soupfin and hound sharks. belly flaps are eliminated and the fish are filleted. Import and export quantities and estimated revenues are given in table 4.

    table four

    Import and export volumes of shark in South Africa by using nation for the two principal shark commodities (frozen shark and shark fin) for 1995 (after Stuttaford 1997)

    country Imports Exports exchange Weight (t) cost (rand) value ($) Weight (t) price (rand) value ($) rate (rand/$) Product: Frozen shark Australia       16.56 181 927 40 428.22 four.50 Belgium       four.44 35 106 7 801.33 four.50 Germany       7.forty six 20 808 four 624.00 four.50 Greece       sixty five.18 279 473 62 one zero five.11 4.50 Hong Kong       5.00 5 357 1 190.forty four 4.50 Italy       57.24 416 797 ninety two 621.fifty six 4.50 Japan 0.95 1 428 317.33       4.50 Netherlands       12.36 sixty one 775 13 727.seventy eight four.50 Taiwan       21.35 32 027 7 117.11 4.50 Product: Shark fins Hong Kong       14.60 1 657 866 568 930.14 4.50 Japan 26.07 172 838 38408.44 three.30 403 235 89 607.seventy eight 4.50 Singapore       0.07 15 494 3 443.eleven four.50 Taiwan 10.09 74 090 16464.44       4.50

    because of the mercury content material, fish over 7 kg don't seem to be exported as stringent exams for mercury in Australia are more likely to reject fillets from the higher fish. Product is exported at about R11-50kg ($2.39/kg). greater fish (>7kg) are exported to Italy and Greece, after great manage assessments are executed in South Africa. one other smaller enterprise primarily based in Cape city exports essentially entirely to Australia. favorite species are the soupfin (R4–50 landed rate) and the hound sharks (R5–50 landed expense). This identical company exports larger shark as well, together with the carcharhinids, mako, blue and cow sharks. Export prices acquired approximate Au$2.60 to Au$4.00. other shark products include a small marketplace for jaws and enamel and fins.

    3.four revenue, profitability and the body of workers

    economic opinions of sharks fisheries in South Africa have frequently not being given a excessive precedence. Annual financial studies of the different fisheries sectors performed by means of the South Africa branch of Sea Fisheries have not up to now regarded shark catches separately. The 1994 and 1995 financial assessments are offered in table three (after De Swardt 1997). Import and export masses with native and $US estimated values from 1990 to 1995 are proven in desk 5 under (after Stuttaford 1993–1997).

    The price of exported frozen shark peaked in 1993 at simply over 1 million rand ($283 000) and for shark fin at 4.1 million rand ($907 000) in 1995. The change between the two is massive as it illustrates the big disparity in price between both items and the jap demand for fins. it's additionally worth noting that the market for shark fin has led to repeated demands for elevated monitoring and control of the shark fishery because the business has been perceived as wasteful with misreporting high (best a fraction of the presumed trap is pronounced and on the foundation of the standard quantities of shark fins exported the seize is assumed to be greatly higher than that reported).

    The returns of the different fisheries through which shark are both focused or are a bycatch is slightly variable. as an example in the directed tuna longline fisheries (international) the shark bycatch is a small, but profitable, element of the total seize and as indicated in desk 5 shark fin instructions a excessive fee. the two directed shark fisheries in South Africa (local fishermen most effective) are economically marginal. a few factors have an impact on the profitability of the native shark fisheries. These consist of:

  • The declining cost of the South African rand in fresh years has extended the viability of exploiting shark for export;

  • development of distant places markets and a extra favourable political climate (South African items are now politically appropriate overseas);

  • development of native processing amenities and stronger recognition of the price of shark by using native fishers;

  • advantageous use of vessels authorized to fish with diverse licences. Seasonality of lots of the smaller fisheries in South Africa is an enormous component in profitability. for example growth within the Nineteen Sixties and 1970s of the tuna pole-directed fishery resulted in a build up of excessive vessel potential. because the tuna catches declined and the season shortened many boat house owners started desperately sought choice shares to take advantage of to maintain yr-circular earnings and to retain vessels and crew lively. Many vessels now elevate permits enabling longline tuna and shark, handline and more currently hake-directed bottom longline fishing.

  • No subsidizes are given to the gear sectors exploiting shark (either as target or bycatch species). in the past a Fisheries development Unit turned into based that offered financial guidance for the development of fishing capability (boats, harbours, and many others). greater these days, this feature has been taken over by using the Small enterprise building corporation (SBDC), which provides favourable phrases for financing and practicing for the establishment of small companies and has been radically used by means of entrepreneurs to purchase their own boats (which resulted partly in the growth of the excess ability describe above). The SBDC continues to characteristic (1998) and supply aid for new or knowledge boat-house owners or holders of recent access rights.

    The Fisheries team of workers is slightly diluted and integrated into the distinctive fishing sectors. In most circumstances, due to the seasonal nature of lots of the fisheries, the body of workers is transient or semi-permanent. Most shark fishing vessels fluctuate in length from 15–30m, averaging 22m universal. Shark fishing operations the usage of longlines and handlines are labour intensive and most vessels have to enhance their crew limit defense certification to enable them to elevate more workers. On general every vessel contains 15–22 crew of which most effective 4–5 may well be permanent. contemporary alterations within the Labour members of the family Act have enforced more desirable working conditions and earnings for crew. The small gill-web fishery on the Cape coast begun as an artisanal fishery and has advanced into a full business operation. although direct employment continues to be small (10–20 fishers deploying nets) with a small factory work drive in the St Helena and Saldanha Bay areas.

    table 5

    Import and export hundreds of frozen shark and shark fins from 1990 to 1995 as given through the South African Customs Union (after Stuttaford 1993–1997)

    12 months Imports Exports exchange Weight (t) value (rand) value ($) Weight (t) value (rand) price ($) rate (rand/$) Product: Frozen shark 1990 0.forty nine 243 66.fifty eight 141.fifty two 378 545 one hundred thirty 710.ninety six 3.sixty five 1991 0.00 0 0.00 one hundred eighty.22 735 011 201 372.88 three.sixty five 1992 22.88 33 970 9 306.eighty five 177.fifty six 608 122 166 608.seventy seven 3.65 1993 0.95 1 428 391.23 189.fifty eight 1 033 270 283 087.sixty seven 3.65 1994 9.forty eight 14 505 three 626.25 186.06 1 011 626 252 906.50 4.00 1995 0.00 0 0.00 152.69 783 448 174 099.56 4.50 Product: Shark fins 1990 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0 0.00 three.65 1991 30.80 seventy eight 966 21 634.fifty two fifty four.49 927 219 254 032.60 3.sixty five 1992 56.18 1 098 031 300 830.41 fifty five.85 2 637 715 722 611.sixty four 3.65 1993 36.18 246 928 sixty seven 651.fifty one 17.ninety seven 2 076 595 568 930.14 three.65 1994 forty seven.24 431 703 107 925.75 95.47 240 565 60 141.25 4.00 1995 15.fifty eight 92 308 20 512.89 95.67 four 083 004 907 334.22 four.50

    4. administration ambitions

    four.1 Introduction

    South Africa has been in an important part within the history of their fisheries. After a duration of political transition in 1994, emphasis changed into in consequence positioned on the components of a fisheries policy. critical to the coverage debate become the sensitive problem of access rights and the way compensation for past discriminatory political guidelines could be addressed. After over two years of formula the new Fisheries coverage was tabled as a White Paper in mid 1997 and the invoice (precursor to the Marine dwelling substances Act) put before parliament in November 1997. The Act turned into because of this passed in can also 1998 and at the time finishing touch of this paper (August 1998), changed into due for promulgation (along with the brand new Sea Fisheries rules). The last four years had been a crucial length for fisheries in South Africa. because the process of policy development has taken a long time, administration during this duration was in the unenviable place of having to lengthen selections and restrict enforcement (because of the uncertaintly and adjustments to the felony framework). These protracted techniques did, to a degree, inhibit the fresh administration of shark fisheries in South Africa, at a time when it become mandatory most and when there was becoming pastime in exploitation of the useful resource and elevated demand for entry rights. unfortunately, shark fisheries in South Africa, as in many different ingredients of the area, had been given very little management attention.

    whereas administration of chondrichthyan fisheries in South Africa has been neglected, it has been made more problematic during the fresh political alterations and uncertainty in policy construction. as much as 1994 management of South African fisheries became the accountability of the Directorate: Sea Fisheries (a branch in the Ministry of Environmental Affairs and Tourism). Fisheries in South Africa have hardly ever been regarded excessive profile in a political experience and have often been moved between ministries or had ad hoc adjustments of Ministers (which further affected continuity of policy and management). administration of Fisheries in South Africa from a legislative viewpoint operates at three degrees - the fundamental stage being the ocean Fisheries Act; 2nd, the ocean Fisheries rules; and on the lowest stage, allow situations. within these constructions laws and regulations can be brought, or changed, to accommodate administration of a particular aid or fishery.

    in all probability greater significant to the fisheries administration pursuits than the previous or latest legal guidelines, is the reputation quo and pending law. The circumstance in South Africa with appreciate to the development of fisheries coverage is of activity. components of a Fisheries coverage began in 1995 and took two years to increase (Marine coverage 1997). remaining acceptance of the coverage in mid 1997 ended in the formula of the Marine dwelling supplies Act (1998) that become accepted and handed with the aid of parliament in early 1998. on the time of submission of this document the brand new act was anticipated to be promulgated in August or September 1998 (promulgation changed into pending the revision of the sea Fisheries laws) and may with no trouble go on trial in the following few years.

    administration of shark stocks and the fisheries that make the most these stocks is not going to be significantly distinctive from previous administration under the old Sea Fisheries Act and rules. aims of the new act embody optimum utilisation principles, the precautionary strategy. upkeep of marine variety, broad and responsible participation in resolution-making and heeding to overseas legal guidelines. in all probability probably the most large trade from previous guidelines is the brought up aim of “restructuring the fishing trade to address old imbalances and to achieve equity inside all branches of the fishing business”. This aim will undoubtedly affect all fisheries in the future, including shark fisheries because it embraces broader entry rights and the need to enhance administration. manage and surveillance. bodies to be established beneath the brand new act include a Consultative Advisory discussion board (with no trouble changing the old Sea Fisheries Advisory Council) in order to propose the liable Minister on matters akin to resource management, law, TACs, analysis, budget and importantly, Operational management tactics (OMPs).

    with regard to shark fisheries, no OMP has been dependent. within the contemporary past however administration guidance on shark fisheries has been the responsibility of the Chondrichthyan Working group (CWG) inside the Sea Fisheries research Institute (sub-directorate Sea Fisheries). This physique became began in 1993 and contains govt and other scientists, environmental scientists, economists, administration and numerical scientists. This physique continues to supply scientific and administration assistance on shark fisheries in South Africa.

    four.2 targets for the administration of the shark fisheries

    No clear administration goals have ever been set for the exploitation of shark in South Africa as in the past, effort has all the time focussed on the bigger commercial (industrial) fisheries. This modified with the formation of the CWG which without problems known the need to supply management counsel on the exploitation of chondrichthyans. An unpublished report (mimeo) submitted in February 1994 (wg/shk/94/Feb/2) become titled “growth in opposition t the building of an integrated administration method to fisheries for sharks and different chondrichthyans in South African waters”. This record outlined shark fisheries in South Africa and cited the popularity of the shares and diverse harvesting innovations relative to fisheries worldwide for shark. A follow-up file in 1995 (Kroese et al. 1995) gave an additional overview of shark catches and bycatches in South African fisheries. both reviews besides the fact that children made little reference to administration targets and focussed basically on the previous and latest historical past of the shark exploitation in South Africa.

    The administration authority at Sea Fisheries: Cape town has however embraced the concept of liable and sustainable utilization as well as following the FAO-counseled Precautionary method. These ideas are certainly brought up objectives within the new Marine dwelling supplies Act. Enforcement, monitoring and handle continue to be foremost issue areas in South African fisheries. A often weakened administration and controlling authority has focussed on priority areas, of which sharks are at the bottom of the list.

    4.3 The aim atmosphere system

    The manner of setting ambitions in the South African shark fisheries has to this point been restricted but will also be broadly described as follows:

  • Identification of affected components, fisheries concerned and responsibility;

  • discussion and preliminary analysis/experiences on the CWG level. This body is a various neighborhood consulting with shark specialists nationally and internationally;

  • assessment of the stock (as far as possible) and submission of information (management goals) to the Director: Sea Fisheries research Institute;

  • Acceptance/rejection/re-evaluation of counsel and submission for acceptance to the sea Fisheries Advisory Council (SFAC) and the executive Director: Sea Fisheries;

  • If needful the manager Director may also request final approval from the Minister.

  • legal authority is still with the branch of Sea Fisheries and its sub-directorate (Exploitation handle). The objectives are for this reason explicitly addressed at distinctive levels - in the beginning on the working community (scientific) degree, then management (research/administration/exploitation control) and if deemed crucial on the SFAC and Ministry level. As has been stated earlier than besides the fact that children, the above process should be revised on promulgation of the new act. It is likely that the basic position of presenting scientific and administration suggestions could be retained by using the CWG. besides the fact that children the new their bodies, together with the CAF and the Fisheries Transformation Council (appointed by means of the Minister to tackle fairness and steadiness within the fishing trade) will eventually be chargeable for ensuring aims are met (these encompass scientific and socio—economic ambitions as well as entry rights).

    4.four Administration of shark fisheries in South Africa

    The physique that during the past (and will achieve this except the new act is promulgated) changed into delegated the responsibility of allocating fishing rights turned into the Quota Board. The Quota Board's responsibility extends most effective to the allocation of rights for elements in which a world TACs were set. Promulgation of the new act will comfortably make the quota board defunct and the granting of entry rights will revert to the Minister (based on suggestions from Sea Fisheries) and, as prescribed through the Minister, additionally to the Fisheries Transformation Council. access to TAC-managed elements has for this reason, during the past, been closed and discipline to Quota Board handle. as soon as allotted a quota, no lengthy-time period rights are assured however quotas will also be transferred (on utility) or sold.

    There are a large number of fisheries in South Africa for which there isn't any TAC handle. These fisheries (of which the shark fisheries is an illustration), are not open access, but fairly are managed through effort manage and allow challenge as well as many different distinctive standards together with gear restrictions, closed seasons, species/dimension/bag restrict and percent bycatch handle. Preferential entry has at all times been given to South African residents and handiest South African registered vessels are accepted (there are exceptions to this rule).

    four.5 laws and permit situations bearing on shark fisheries in South Africa

    the first prevalent data of any variety of manage was the introduction of a Sea Fisheries Advisory Committee in 1948 which resulted within the introduction of a 9" mesh size for gill nets. the use of gill nets with no let isn't allowed. Kroeseet al. (1995) reports that in 1995 there have been 780 licensed gill nets and 166 seashore seine nets. The nets used for catching the St Joseph shark are limited to 75m in size, 2.28m depth and a stretched mesh of 17.8cm. They may no longer be used within 500m of the excessive-water mark. The rights to those allows for are “historic” and in keeping with locality. they have traditionally been handed down via family generations and had been at the start used for fishing mullet (Liza richardsoni), however now consist of rights to capture shark (using an even bigger mesh size than initially prescribed). The nets used in the shielding fishery off Natal vary and are made up of panels 212m long and 6.1m deep with a mesh size of 25cm.

    There are no obstacles on the shark catches in the trawl fisheries despite the fact they are not directly plagued by the bounds on the goal species. manage of this gear sector is directed on the Cape hakes and consist of the environment of an annual TAC through area (West and South Coasts), effort handle inshore (<110m water depth and 75mm mesh) and offshore (>110m water depth and 110mm mesh).

    within the pelagic longline fisheries, allows for are limited in number (at existing 35 shark or “L” permits issued). To avoid targeting on TAC-controlled species akin to hake and kingklip, bycatch of those species is proscribed to 10 and five fish respectively at anyone time. Operators are not allowed to fish in closed bay areas and reserves. Fishers are also accepted to go and intestine fish offered the vessel has a refrigerator on board, however ought to retain the head, intestine and tail within the fridge unless the seize is landed. These laws additionally apply to the international tuna let holders and extra currently to the 30 new native longline tuna enable holders (as of 1998).

    in the leisure line fishery, rock and surf fisheries and spearfishermen, fishers don't seem to be approved to capture more than 10 chondrichthyans per day. definite seashore-seining and go with the flow-netting operations also have a bycatch restrict of 20 sharks and rays per day.

    The handiest different regulation of magnitude to sharks is the coverage given to the notable White Shark. Carcharodon carcharias. This legislation specifies that nobody without a allow may capture, try to seize, or kill, an excellent white shark. additional it's illegal to buy, promote or present on the market, any outstanding white shark, or any part, thereof. This legislations took place on account of the expanding exploitation of this species and the linked alternate in the animals items, e.g. jaws. Subsequent to the introduction of this legislation an identical law was brought in different areas of the world.

    four.6 discussion

    The objectives of fisheries managers in South Africa had been laid down in a broad sense but in lots of examples selected fisheries were omitted (even though this is now not the case with the larger fisheries). it is the nature of fisheries that in regular, objectives and granting of entry are by no means accredited via all and sundry. The introduction of OMPs in precept should still influence in simpler determination-making and the surroundings of management protocols. For the minor fisheries, besides the fact that children, the formulation and acceptance of OMPs is a little distant, with precedence being given to the better industrial fisheries. The introduction of shark-directed pelagic longline enables as an example changed into advert hoc and not according to sound management or pursuits. As is commonly the case, exploitation preceded administration and standards in accordance with potential, resource fame, gear type, and so on., had been not certainly recognized before makes it possible for had been issued. With the introduction of the new act, the formula of OMPs, and the appointment of their bodies aimed toward equitable distribution may still, with time, help the management procedure.

    The provisions for rules and control of the exploitation of sharks in South Africa are obviously inadequate. rules are such that they're complicated to enforce and had been given insufficient administration attention. besides the fact that children the coverage-atmosphere system has evolved, the probability that the controlling authorities will in the close future be more assertive in regards principally to exploitation of shark, is low. The primary reason behind here is the obvious uncertainty concerning the introduction of the new act and additionally the discount in capability and skills in exploitation manage. additional, despite the fact buildings are in location to manage the present and competencies fisheries, there are severe beneath-staffing issues and an absence of appropriate abilities. below these situations, precedence is expected to be given to the bigger industrial fisheries.

    On a more high quality note however, the new fisheries policy, the Marine living elements Act and the Operational management processes, as neatly because the introduction of formal criteria for the granting of fishing (access) rights, are likely to give a good deal more suitable administration protocols and constructive long-term useful resource handle in the future.

    5. THE administration PLANNING system

    5.1 Introduction

    The administration and assessment of shark fisheries in South Africa has attempted to follow similar processes to that employed in the greater TAC-controlled industrial fisheries. besides the fact that children there has been no finished assessment of both a shark stock or a specific shark fishery. management counsel has, as described previous, been ad hoc and based on the ‘Precautionary method’. This contains tips that the introduction of extra ability into the vicinity be averted and that makes it possible for should still be limited and strictly managed until such time as correct assessments are accomplished and there is greater sure bet and self assurance within the repute of the chondrichthyan shares.

    5.2 Fishery records

    South Africa has a fantastic gadget of facts seize and reporting for all fisheries. permit holders are required to publish a daily seize log both month-to-month or on completion of a trip (depending on the fishery). additional, the volume of seize discharged is established via a touchdown authority (Sea Fisheries Inspectorate) and both daily logs and Inspectorate landings are compared and entered into a complete database.

    Logbooks are designed for specific fisheries and can include for instance daily effort (hooks shot in the longline fishery as an example) and a full breakdown of the daily trap (goal species, bycatch and discards). Misreporting and falsification of catches are of course difficulty areas, however these can perpetually be identified if imbalances in the log returns and landings are discovered. acquiring log data from overseas longline operators has been especially complicated due essentially to communication complications, poor realizing of the legislation and in lots of circumstances, effectively no want by using the overseas fishermen to conform. protected in the new legislations is a dedication to introduce each vessel monitoring techniques and observers and it's hoped this can raise control, chiefly of foreign flagged vessels.

    Fisheries records catch and quota control is the responsibility of Sea Fisheries and falls particularly inside the tasks of the sea Fisheries research Institute. At present, the records seize and database methods are separate for distinct fisheries. as an instance, the biggest databases are these for the pelagic, demersal (trawl) and linefish fisheries. The blended nature of the shark fisheries ability that shark catches are captured on distinct systems making collation and handle of information complicated. besides the fact that children, the latest fisheries will soon be built-in (and transformed) into a single relational (SQL) facts administration equipment (integration comprises administration, quota handle and analysis facts). In its existing kind, entry to the shark fishery statistics is feasible during the individual databases. Extraction and utilisation of those statistics for seize handle and assessment purposes are hence the responsibility of researchers and technical officers responsible for each gadget.

    5.3 inventory evaluation

    No finished inventory evaluation of the shark aid has been performed and the appointment of a researcher and assessment professional on sharks is comparatively fresh (mid 1997). management information has depended strongly on assistance from time-honored shark fisheries. In particular the fishery for soupfin shark in Australia. because the building of a suitable fishery model for shark is still in its infancy no intensive report on the technique can also be given. The evaluation is in keeping with the dominant business species Galeorhinus galeus (i.e. soupfin shark). biological records and reference features for the assessment had been offered through Freer (1992) and compared with the assistance for the identical Australian species. An age-structured surplus construction model is being developed and it is hoped will subsequently be utilized to other South African shark shares. as with all other assessments carried out through the ocean Fisheries research Institute, peer overview is considered basic. South Africa has leaders in shark research (taxonomy and biology) as well as recognized modelling abilities.

    No directed resource surveys for shark had been conducted, besides the fact that children commonplace sampling for organic parameters is accomplished when possible on landings (if landed entire) and additionally throughout analysis cruises. Biomass estimates of shark in response to directed hake bottom-trawl surveys are completed annually. since the areal enlargement options deployed on these surveys are directed at hake, the indices of shark abundance derived from these surveys are handled cautiously, but are nonetheless valuable.

    5.4 Sustainability of the aid

    The lengthy historical past of shark exploitation in South Africa and the obvious low administration profile doesn't bode smartly for the future of the stocks. The ancient catch illustrated in determine 2 suggests overexploitation and under-reporting. The vogue in the South African fisheries mirrors those in fisheries the place shares have collapsed with a typical sequence of routine:

  • a comparatively unexploited (pristine) inventory is exploited as a bycatch

  • with the efforts of pioneering fishermen the inventory is investigated and a targeted fishery initiated

  • as the fishery evolves and is acknowledged as a great profits producer capture costs are excessive and capitalisation increases

  • scientists display challenge for the shares and administration is initiated (South African shark fisheries would look like at this factor)

  • the demand for entry is in direct conflict with governments makes an attempt to rationalise and restrict effort, and eventually,

  • the stock(s) either crumple or their fisheries turn into unprofitable.

  • This state of affairs is exacerbated by way of the organic vulnerability of sharks to over—exploitation, i.e. sluggish boom prices, low fecundity and availability/vulnerability to a variety of apparatus forms.

    6. summary AND CONCLUSIONS

    South Africa has a protracted background of shark exploitation. the nature of this exploitation has been typically non-directed and most effective just a few small directed shark fisheries are energetic. Shark fisheries have in the past had a relatively low profile and management and handle has been missing. These complications have been exacerbated via the recent uncertainty in the latest and future legislation. extra, exploitation control and enforcement continue to be the only greatest difficulty area in South African fisheries. The enormously distinct nature of shark fisheries further complicates enforcement. Legally the existing Sea Fisheries Act and laws are sound, however in the case of shark fisheries, few prosecutions have ever been successful and there is a established reluctance to prosecute within the existing climate of change, because the possibilities of a successful conviction are far off. on the fishermen's degree there is ordinary uncertainty and insecurity re future entry rights and only if safety of access and tenure is certain, will liable fishing be accomplished. Fishers have indicated a willingness to settle for on-board observers and satellite tv for pc tracking as part of an built-in monitoring handle and surveillance gadget.

    Shark-directed fisheries are profitable, but in their present types are both a bycatch in a longtime fishery or augment different seasonal fishing operations. Markets are centered and international exchange quotes favourable. administration, youngsters lacking during the past, is in accordance with sound targets and there are advantageous moves towards introducing Operational management tactics that agree to both pending local law and internationally trends. The introduction of aid assessment methods for sharks has just recently been introduced and is ongoing. it's extremely probably that the majority shark resources in South African waters have already been exploited to beyond sustainable tiers and that sooner or later, stricter handle and inventory rebuilding could be vital.

    7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The aid and counsel of the following is gratefully recounted: M. Kroese, C. Wilke, S. Du Plessis, H. Oosthuizen, J. Wissema, Dr A. Payne, Dr A. Badenhorst (all the Sea Fisheries analysis Institute), S. Matthews (flora and fauna and atmosphere Society of South Africa). The approval of the Director.Sea Fisheries research Institute (SFRI) in Cape town is gratefully stated.

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