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IBM Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design) exam questions
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LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming FAQ

here are solutions to generally asked questions about LabVIEW object-oriented programming.

1. advantages of the usage of LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming

1.  what's object-oriented programming (OOP) in time-honored and why use it?

Object-oriented programming has proven its superiority over procedural programming as an structure choice in a couple of programming languages. It encourages cleaner interfaces between sections of the code, it's more straightforward to debug, and it scales superior for massive programming groups.

From wikipedia:The concept behind object-oriented programming is that a laptop program could be seen as comprising a collection of particular person units, or objects, that act on each and every different, as adverse to a traditional view through which a application may be considered as a set of features, or with ease as a listing of guidelines to the computing device. each and every object is in a position to receiving messages, processing records, and sending messages to different objects. every object will also be seen as an independent little machine or actor with a distinct role or responsibility.

Object-oriented programming is claimed to promote enhanced flexibility and maintainability in programming, and is largely familiar in significant-scale application engineering. furthermore, proponents of OOP declare that OOP is less difficult to be taught for these new to desktop programming than previous approaches, and that the OOP method is commonly less demanding to enhance and to retain, lending itself to more direct analysis, coding, and knowing of complicated situations and techniques than different programming methods.

2. What are the variations between OOP in C++ and LabVIEW?

C++ is a textual content-based mostly, useful language. LabVIEW is a graphical, dataflow language. The distinct paradigms require variations in how they latest OO aspects:

  • LabVIEW has an top of the line ancestor type for all objects. C++ doesn't.
  • C++ has constructors. LabVIEW has no want for them.
  • C++ has destructors. LabVIEW has no need for them.
  • C++ has both a reference and value syntax for passing objects as parameters. LabVIEW has a value syntax only, with references created via other points.
  • LabVIEW has automatic records mutation so the person can retrieve historic records despite the fact that the class has been edited. C++ doesn't, requiring the consumer to song version adjustments and write mutation code for facts.
  • C++ has templates. LabVIEW 8.2 and later doesn't.
  • C++ has pure virtual functions. LabVIEW 8.2 and later does not.
  • C++ has diverse inheritance. LabVIEW doesn't.
  • For extra rationalization of those change, please check with the white paper, LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming: the selections behind the Design.

    three. What are the fundamental merits of LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

    A. what is the advantage to a brand new consumer of LabVIEW?1. The strength of LabVIEW is that it makes the vigour of desktop science accessible to non-programmers. LabVIEW object-oriented programming brings one of the most most advanced programming strategies into the hold close of beginning users. OO requires greater of a dedication to planning, and so is commonly chosen most effective if the person is embarking on a huge software effort.2. OO provides a means of planning application the use of phrases that healthy a feature specification. the outline of the function discusses about gadgets that seem on the monitor, or items of facts that the characteristic will manipulate. With OO, which you can write code that plans itself round those same phrases: database objects, button objects, electronic mail objects.B. what is the benefit to an experienced G programmer who does not practice OOP?1. more convenient to debug—extra modular code lets you slender the checklist of VIs where a bug might be.2. more straightforward protection—OO design ends up in greater constitution, which helps builders to be extra productive over time. builders can conveniently determine areas where they are looking to add elements, and are much less more likely to introduce error into unrelated sections of code.

    four. Who may still use LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

  • VIs to be maintained for a very long time
  • large utility
  • distinctive developers working on same VIs
  • 5. Who may still not use LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

  • categorical users
  • For the short, single VI to take a measurement, LabVIEW courses are overkill
  • 6. What are some examples of how/the place a customer would use LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

    For a check and dimension illustration that contrasts a task-primarily based method and an object-oriented strategy, confer with the Board trying out illustration that ships with LabVIEW 8.2 and later.

    labview\examples\lvoop\BoardTesting\Board testing.lvproj

    returned to appropriate

    2. a way to Use LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming

    1. where can i gain knowledge of extra about using LabVIEW object-oriented programming? for instance are there practising fabric, app notes, tutorials, demo scripts, and examples?

    LabVIEW eight.2 and later ships with a few LabVIEW object-oriented programming examples. Refer also to the further resources portion of this document.

    2. How do I transition to the use of LabVIEW object-oriented programming on my existing initiatives?

    The least difficult start is to convert existing category definitions to LabVIEW classes. which you could do this by using right-clicking a typedef within the mission Explorer window and making a choice on Convert Contents to classification from the shortcut menu. See the LabVIEW support for extra information about creating LabVIEW classes.

    be aware: LabVIEW does not hold the default cost of controls and constants all over the conversion system. To entry the details of the typedefs, add VIs to these classes that deserve to access to the classification definition. This grouping of VIs according to the statistics they act on is simple to object-oriented programming. confer with the two NI Week 2006 displays listed beneath within the extra elements area for extra counsel about object-oriented design.

    3. How do I put into effect a "by way of reference" implementation in LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

    consult with the Reference Object instance that ships with LabVIEW eight.2 and later.


    nearly, you're making the deepest information of a class be a reference. The illustration suggests the way to use a single-element queue reference for this purpose. You can also additionally use the GOOP Toolkit (discuss with the LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming & GOOP Toolkit area under).

    4. Do LabVIEW courses work with LabVIEW real-Time or any non-desktop target?

    With LabVIEW 2009, object orientation is now supported on LabVIEW actual-time goals. Object-oriented programming isn't supported in true-time with LabVIEW eight.6 and prior. 

    5. When closing a VI, why does LabVIEW on occasion open two store adjustments dialog packing containers; one for the VI and subVIs and one for LabVIEW courses? Why now not open one dialog box that saves everything?

    for those who shut a VI, LabVIEW knows the entire subVIs that should be unused because of closing that VI, so LabVIEW can ask to save them suddenly. classes, youngsters, cannot go away reminiscence unless all facts cases have left memory, and LabVIEW can't be aware of even if closing any given VI will definitely shut out the closing illustration of facts. A VI could not have any reference to the class in its code, nevertheless it could nevertheless have an illustration of the classification kept in a variant somewhere. If all VIs had been idle, LabVIEW may determine what number of situations of the type will go away with this set of VIs and notice if that bills for all of the circumstances of the type last in reminiscence. Then LabVIEW would recognize that the classification is leaving memory with the VIs and could ask in regards to the classification within the same retailer alterations dialog field because the different VIs/libraries. but if any VI is still working, the number of situations can also be constantly fluctuating. And whereas VIs are running, information can also be hiding in unattainable-to-search places, corresponding to a queue or notifier, and these additional areas simplest get disposed when the VI goes idle. A running VI can also create new circumstances in places that LabVIEW already checked. So it's inconceivable to count situations whereas the VIs are operating. given that LabVIEW doesn't abort operating VIs except after asking no matter if or now not to keep the changes, LabVIEW can't yet understand if the class may be leaving reminiscence. although all of the VIs had been idle and LabVIEW could do the search for facts, that search can be extraordinarily slow, so LabVIEW doesn't attempt it in any respect. as a result, should you close a VI, the courses often become getting their personal retailer alterations dialog box.

    The only time LabVIEW can fold classes in with every little thing else and offer a single shop changes dialog container is should you are closing the task. if that's the case, as a result of every VI within the venture should be closed down, LabVIEW recognize that ability all the statistics instances of the category should be disposed without needing to account for them all.

    returned to precise

    3. LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming & GOOP Toolkit

    1. what's the GOOP Toolkit?

    you can discover a free download of the GOOP Toolkit 1.0 on the national devices web site. You should purchase later models of the toolkit from Endevo.

    2. am i able to proceed using GOOP in LabVIEW 8.2 and later?


    three. How can GOOP and LabVIEW object-oriented programming work together? How and when if you use the Endevo GOOP Toolkit together with or instead of LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

    Most clients will discover the LabVIEW courses work highest quality for his or her functions. LabVIEW courses behave just like the clusters that clients are established with.

    that you would be able to use references to handle verbal exchange between sections of code that execute in parallel. For clients who are actually modeling device materials, the reference model turns into very valuable and that they might also want to create GOOP courses. References are additionally valuable when creating graph and tree information structures. Even in these cases, the data fields on the core of the GOOP type may also smartly be LabVIEW courses. youngsters, when the usage of references or another capability of communicating between sections of parallel code, you should find out about locking, race situations, and different complexities that come up.

    that you can use the reference mannequin to make certain that you not ever reproduction that classification in reminiscence. For a category that requires lots of memory, this can be an advantage.

    4. should I transition my software that makes use of the GOOP Toolkit to LabVIEW object-oriented programming? What present client functions using Endevo's GOOP Toolkit would make experience put into effect in LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

    There is no requirement that you rewrite latest GOOP courses as LabVIEW classes. One motive is that remember to under no circumstances spoil working code with no compelling motive, and the GOOP courses will continue to work in LabVIEW eight.2 and past. after all, the GOOP Toolkit is written in LabVIEW. additional, changing code that works with the aid of-reference into code that works by-price is a major carrying out.

    One intent to transition is efficiency. a lot of overhead is generated for an object when every function call has to lookup the reference, lock the example, and extract the records. The GOOP Toolkit does a good job of minimizing this overhead, nevertheless it is there even so. additional, operating using a refnum prevents many operations that may in any other case proceed in parallel. if in case you have a class that doesn't want the with the aid of-reference behavior and does need more suitable performance, then you may accept as true with transitioning the GOOP class to the LabVIEW category.

    5. How do I transition my application that uses GOOP to LabVIEW object-oriented programming?

    here's a query that need to be answered on a case-through-case groundwork. LabVIEW has no automatic approach to make the conversion.

    6. what's the performance of LabVIEW object-oriented programming vs. the Endevo GOOP Toolkit?

    on account of the consistency with dataflow and the native compiler implementation of dynamic dispatching, LabVIEW classes will are likely to outperform GOOP courses in equal cases. That having been said, there are very few equivalent instances. The LabVIEW classes are designed to substitute clusters and to raise dataflow. GOOP classes are a way to add references to LabVIEW. They serve two distinct functions in the language. When developing new classes, make sure you make the resolution between a GOOP class or a LabVIEW class in line with the performance the type wants, not in response to performance predictions.

    again to suitable

    four. Technical details

    1. what is the performance influence of using a LabVIEW category versus a cluster typedef?

    Benchmarking on a range of computers shows the performance between these two is basically identical. seek advice from the question beneath for more efficiency assistance.  

    2. what's the efficiency overhead of a dynamic subVI call (vs. a normal subVI name)?

    A dynamic dispatching subVI has some small overhead when LabVIEW appears up which subVI to invoke. The overhead is steady. It does not increase as you add extra courses or as you add more dynamic VIs to a class. There can also be a efficiency hit if the subVI name has to make further copies of the parameters to suit the performance of the actual subVI LabVIEW invokes. which you can stay away from this with the aid of wiring the input front panel terminals to output front panel terminals even on dynamic VIs that you just in no way expect to call (as an instance, parent VIs that exist most effective to define the connector pane for babies to override). consult with the white paper LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming: the choices at the back of the Design for details on how the dynamic dispatching is in a position to achieve constant overhead performance.

    3. How do LabVIEW class libraries differ from task libraries?

    A LabVIEW type is a type of task library. it's a task library dedicated to the assignment of defining a knowledge classification. Like a mission library, the LabVIEW classification defines scope and namespace for its member VIs, and a VI may also be owned by one and only 1 LabVIEW class. 

    The LabVIEW classification has a non-public data handle. here is a control VI that defines the data values of the type. This particular manage isn't half of different library types, and is really saved internal the type file. LabVIEW classes have all the properties that libraries have, and some additional homes. you could see the further homes within the classification houses dialog box on the Inheritance, Probes and Wire appearance pages.

    The best potential that project libraries have that LabVIEW classes do not is the potential to contain sublibraries. 

    four. When the use of LabVIEW object-oriented programming, what receives loaded and when?

    If a VI uses a LabVIEW classification, then loading the VI masses the type, just like a VI hundreds all of its subVIs. A LabVIEW class in flip masses all of its member VIs and its mum or dad class. dad or mum courses don't instantly trigger the loading of their child classes. folks do not have any hyperlinks to children. A member VI of a dad or mum might also use a baby type and for that reason LabVIEW hundreds the infant type.

    5. What does "by using-value" and "by-reference mean?" What are the execs and cons of each and every?

    "through-value" skill that the wire contains exact statistics of the classification of the wire. "by means of-reference" capability that the wire consists of a reference to the facts of the classification, and LabVIEW outlets the exact facts in some important repository. Most statistics forms in LabVIEW, together with numerics, arrays, clusters, strings, Booleans, and paths are with the aid of price. typically, the best forms which are by way of reference are people who use communications or reflect gadget substances, reminiscent of file refnums, queue refnums, and VI Server refnums. LabVIEW courses are by using price. In by way of-cost syntax, each object has its personal records values, which you could regulate independently of different objects. In by way of-reference syntax, there's a single illustration of facts to which diverse objects refer. If one object modifies the statistics, it has to be cautious now not to battle with other objects who are reading and writing that information. The basic professionals and cons are:

  • with the aid of-price is greater in a particularly parallel atmosphere reminiscent of LabVIEW because it avoids race situations.
  • by-value allows for the compiler to examine when copies of facts need to be made, lessening the burden on the programmer.
  • through-reference offers the programmer responsibility for allocation, which is from time to time a higher model for single-example resources and large data sets.
  • 6. Why is LabVIEW object-oriented programming "by way of value?"

    discuss with the white paper LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming: the selections behind the Design.

    7. Does country wide contraptions have UML equipment for developing/managing LabVIEW courses?

    NI does not have a local UML tool. Endevo makes a tool for producing classes from UML diagrams, and producing UML diagrams from code. The tool presently works for GOOP courses (confer with the LabVIEW Object-Oriented & GOOP Toolkit section above), but an upcoming liberate will support LabVIEW courses as smartly.

    8. Why can't i exploit  "Make latest cost Default" on LabVIEW class controls and warning signs? Why can not I set the values of LabVIEW object-oriented programming constants?

    Make latest cost Default is a positive function of LabVIEW. You could use it generally for constructing look at various VIs. This function is not supported for LabVIEW courses in LabVIEW 8.2 and later on account of the complexity of proposing an excellent person interface so that the consumer knows when the records is whatever aside from the default-default, despite the fact that the person can't truly see the records since the information is private. This function is a high priority to be blanketed in a future LabVIEW version.

    9. Why cannot I make a dynamic VI reentrant?

    Reentrant dynamic VIs are not supported function in LabVIEW eight.2. as a result of dynamic subVI nodes at edit time have no idea which subVI LabVIEW will truly invoke at run time, every node would need to create clones of all of the possible subVIs. This seems to be prohibitively expensive in reminiscence.

    (LabVIEW 8.5) that you could use reentrant dynamic VIs in LabVIEW 8.5.

    you could configure a dynamic dispatch VI to be recursive, or to use itself as a part of its personal definition. Recursive VIs can call themselves on their own block diagram, including the block diagram of subVIs. Recursion is helpful if you are looking to operate many times on the output of the identical procedure. which you could configure a dynamic dispatch member VI to enable recursion by using environment it to be reentrant and to share clones between situations.

    finished here steps to configure a VI for recursion.

  • Open or create a dynamic dispatch member VI.

  • Make the VI reentrant.

  • opt for File»VI residences to display the VI homes dialog box.

  • select Execution from the class pull-down menu to screen the Execution houses page.

  • place a checkmark in the Reentrant execution checkbox and select Share clones between instances.

  • boost the member VI to complete a recursive operation.

  • note- not accounting for infinite recursion factors needless memory utilization and might crash LabVIEW. To avoid limitless recursion, agree with calling the recursive VI in a Case constitution.

    lower back to right

    5. additional resources

    1. LabVIEW Object-Oriented Programming: the choices in the back of the Design. White paper.

    2. group internet doc: relocating average OO Design Patterns From different Languages Into LabVIEWThis doc describes numerous design patterns from other programming languages and how to implement those patterns in LabVIEW. The patterns can assist you determine which courses you need to create to solve a selected programming issue and make the interactions amongst those classes most useful. This document is intended to trade over time as superior programming ideas are identified.

    3. One-hour video presentation on getting all started with LVOOP: Object Oriented Programming in LabVIEWThis video is a one-hour presentation with the aid of Trevor Christman about the fundamentals of object oriented programming and the way these fundamentals can be accessed in LabVIEW. a good aid for those that decide upon video to text studying.

    4. Hardware abstraction with LV courses: how to Mitigate Hardware Obsolescence in subsequent-era verify programs (white paper) - Mitigating Obsolescence with Hardware Abstraction Layers (webcast)

    5. Object Oriented Design Patterns Technical guide and workout routines - here's the documentation and aid VIs for a self-paced fingers-on walkthrough of some intermediate level design patterns with LabVIEW classes. it's supposed for a pupil who has the hold close of the basics of LabVIEW classes and wants to see the way to use these classes in a bigger software context. This arms-on session was first offered at NI Week 2011. The VIs on the web page are saved for LV version 2011; VIs for version 2010 are available -- search in the web page feedback section for "2010".

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