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Novell Networking and Services for Linux

Novell Networking and Services for Linux practice test
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Go In-Depth With LDAP and Novell's eDirectory


EUC with HCI: Why It concerns

you're chargeable for managing 15,000 consumer debts and 20,000 computer systems in your enterprise. it is 9 a.m. on Monday. do you know the place your clients' computers are? if you're working for a standard enterprise, pretty much certainly you do not. "British Telecom these days audited their IT property and located that they'd 20,000 extra computer systems than they notion," says Dave Bingham, Consulting Director, Fujitsu Consulting UK. Now that is a major techniques administration problem!

Many corporations are sinking beneath the weight of their existing legacy network identity, entry control, and provisioning techniques. one of the crucial warning signs that you simply could have a problem:

  • users cannot remember all their passwords as a result of each software requires its personal authentication
  • directory suggestions is out of date, or incomplete
  • Ex-employees nonetheless have access to native/remote network functions
  • It takes on ordinary, 22 steps to create a new employee e mail tackle
  • Little or no auditing of bills and privileges, including move application comparisons to get a true feel of consumer actions
  • Redundant administration points and no pre-established delegation guidelines
  • Proprietary entry, authentication, and provisioning APIs for each software
  • As large and small businesses alike struggle to handle IT property and costs, global network identity administration systems are looking more and more beautiful. The Forrester community predicts most Fortune a hundred companies might be implementing these programs to reduce TCO (total cost of possession), dispose of manual/legacy systems, and streamline business procedures.

    What do Novell, identification management and LDAP (light-weight listing access Protocol) should do with any of this? is that this the identical moribund enterprise usual for the mature NetWare, NDS (Novell directory carrier), and GroupWise product lines? sure, a revitalized Novell is aggressively pursuing the network identity administration and listing services market with a new generation of LDAP-based items and applied sciences. by using building on Novell's traditional strengths in listing administration and de-coupling these items from their flagship NDS NOS product, it is hoping to compete without delay with iPlanet, Oblix, crucial route, Microsoft, and different identification management providers. The next few years will be a battleground for network identity carriers and consultants as they struggle to establish themselves in this new industry. let us take a extra in depth analyze Novell's LDAP implementation and directory carrier items to peer why make sure you be critically in view that them if you would like an enterprise scale LDAP device.

    Why Novell and LDAP?Novell realized it needed an open standard for its entrance-end application application. LDAP become the evident choice because Novell had traditionally primarily based each the NetWare and NDS programs on the X.500 protocol and LDAP turned into at the beginning designed because the X.500 front conclusion. In March 1999, Novell launched a duplicate of open source LDAP as part of its SDK (utility developer's kit) indicating its full help for the LDAP general. at the time Kurt Zeilenga, chief architect of the OpenLDAP assignment, referred to, "global adoption of technologies requires that builders have access to open and reusable code. we're glad that Novell has chosen to make use of OpenLDAP application and has made its alterations purchasable to the community so all may also benefit. They appear forward to working with Novell in furthering open supply LDAP application." It obviously had the complete help of the developer neighborhood.

    however LDAP has been round as a standard protocol in view that 1995 except recently it has been a strictly again-office business community carrier. prior to now, the simplest open commonplace for directories become X.500, added in 1988. considering the fact that X.500 became OSI mannequin primarily based, LDAP was designed to function a translation protocol between the TCP/IP and OSI fashions. because it is probably the most open and flexible of the entire network features protocols, the community identity administration neighborhood has embraced it because the core know-how to connect person and desktop identity assistance together into one seamless complete. it is now the de facto normal for many main identification management functions functions. Openwave and iPlanet both use LDAP because the underlying address directory know-how for commercial enterprise e mail features items. LDAP is an established, potent, scalable open listing typical -- an exceptionally fascinating solution.

    Novell NDS and LDAPHow has that changed Novell's products? First, allow us to seem to be at the particulars of how the NDS gadget has thoroughly included LDAP. NDS 8 provides potent LDAP guide by means of permitting entry directly to a NDS facts shop. This affords the best of both worlds -- open requisites for directory access while leveraging Novell's security strengths similar to robust authentication and server-server replication. This more advantageous assist includes:

  • LDAP capabilities are installed by default, which ability that LDAP consumers can transparently access NDS objects the use of SSL with out requiring any extra customer software.
  • capacity to put in writing without delay to LDAP schema. To alternate an LDAP-NDS mapping, go to the ConsoleOne (Novell's Java-based server/computer management software) screen and select LDAP community Object. right click on this object and select properties. that you can then go to the Attribute map or classification Map tab to add/adjust/delete the appropriate object.
  • Full auxiliary category guide, which means if an NDS or LDAP object is a member of diverse object classes, it inherits the attributes of all these object courses. be aware there are three default auxiliary classes in NDS.
  • eDirectory - Novell's listing service ProducteDirectory, which evolved from NDS, is a directory service that is scalable, extensible, and excessive efficiency. actually, Novell has publicly tested that eDirectory can manage greater than one thousand million objects in a single tree. This capacity far exceeds what most commercial enterprise networks or e-companies will ever require. a few of eDirectory's primary add-ons like world printing functions are included into NetWare 6.

    FeaturesSome of eDirectory's new or more desirable facets protected in version 8.7 - codenamed "Falcon" are:

  • Full assist on distinctive platforms, Netware, home windows NT/2000, and UNIX flavors (Linux, AIX, and Solaris). here is first-rate information for multi-platform businesses.
  • eDirectory has full support for replication (distinctive distributed copies of the listing in case of failover) and portioning (splitting listing logically to support decentralized administration and better community performance). this is particularly critical in a 7x24, five 9s, mission important deployments.
  • Full aid of LDAP over SSL/TLS (relaxed Socket Layer & Transport Layer safety protocols). This characteristic is terribly vital within the net-based mostly features arena.
  • supports SNMP monitoring. both listing monitoring and management consoles are available. ConsoleOne is a Java-based for servers/workstations, and iMonitor is an internet-primarily based monitoring and diagnostics for all company eDirectories.
  • IManager is a web-based mostly listing supervisor that performs operations on listing objects, together with access, advent, listing portioning, and replication.
  • It contains an import/export utility using LDAP directory Interchange format (LDIF) for simplified ports and integration with legacy methods. It can also be completed from either the command line or the ConsoleOne or iManager products.
  • listing StructureHere is a short overview of the Novell directory structure from true to bottom. Novell calls its directories "container objects."

  • TREE (as soon as known as [ROOT]) is the excellent of the directory hierarchy and incorporates all objects in the directory. essentially used to supply or deny global rights.
  • firm contains all objects for an organization or enterprise. This contains the Administrator consumer. a rustic object can even be created at this degree for greater refinement.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL UNIT (OU) - is an extra subdivision of an organization constitution (similar to divisions, geographical, etc). users are created at this degree.
  • domain (DNS Domains) - permits eDirectory interplay with DNS for vicinity of functions.
  • DirXMLDir XML offers bi-directional and Meta-listing capabilities between e-directory and other business and legacy methods. The methods speak via without delay processing XML files. DirXML runs on a number of platforms -- Linux, NetWare, Solaris, and windows NT/2000, but requires eDirectory eight.5 or later. at present attainable DirXML drivers consist of:

  • LDAP Directories - IPlanet/Netscape listing Server, crucial direction InJoin directory, IBM SecureWay
  • electronic Messaging - Groupwise, Lotus Notes, Microsoft exchange
  • enterprise functions - Peoplesoft, IBM WebSphere MQ, Oracle, IBM DB2, and Sybase
  • working system Domains - NT, active listing, NIS
  • Delimited text - Miscellaneous
  • DirXML ComponentsBetween eDirectory/DirXML there are two various kinds of statistics flows.

  • writer Channel - Sends facts from a considerable number of techniques to eDirectory.
  • Subscriber Channel.- Sends information from eDirectory to numerous systems.
  • DirXML Driver - Handles the communication between DirXML engine and the utility but not the rule of thumb processing. This includes receiving the XML document and translating it into a collection of commands, which are then sent to the applicable records store. note that DirXML 1.1 not requires eDirectory and DirXML running on the server permitting faraway drivers to be dynamically loaded.
  • DirXML Engine - translates listing pursuits such as add, modify, or delete to an XML document. Translation involves processing quite a lot of filters, suggestions, and grace sheets to achieve the desired effect.
  • Objects - eDirectory operations involve definite key objects, DirXML-DriverSet, DirXML-Driver, DirXML-publisher, and DirXML-Subscriber.
  • Filters -- check which attributes equivalent to name or handle could be affected for this selected channel session.
  • rules sets
  • Object mapping -- acquaintances an object within the eDirectory schema with an object within the exterior utility.
  • Matching -- Determines the attributes and values in eDirectory and the corresponding software that should match before growing an affiliation attribute.
  • Create Object -- Specifies the attribute and values that must be in region earlier than a brand new object or record is created.
  • Placement -- Specifies the location within the utility the objects are saved. multiple guidelines are customarily used.
  • XSLT vogue sheets - outline the XLST transformation guidelines that transforms commands or listing activities present in the XML files.
  • Developer ServicesAdditional capabilities and items Novell offers exceptionally designed to help builders include:

  • customized DirXML Drivers -- Written in either C++ or Java. The Java drivers requires JDK 1.1.7b or later. developers can use DSTrace facility and DirXML hint log for debugging.
  • XML Interfaces for C++ - permits the developer to write down messages to DSTrace facility and DirXML hint log.
  • LDAP Extensions and control for JNDI (Java Naming and listing Interface).
  • check Server for LDAP
  • eDirectory category Libraries for C and Java - Used to perform operations such as question or add on a LDAP listing. part of the Novell Developer kit (NDK), it uses open supply code from the OpenLDAP assignment.
  • Some CautionsNovell is relocating the appropriate route by means of porting the equipment to numerous structures, but if you in reality wish to have a totally built-in system, you should definitely nonetheless be the usage of the other Novell items in conjunction with eDirectory. besides the fact that children eDirectory has some remarkable aspects that make it more convenient to increase commercial enterprise scaled listing features based purposes, it continues to be at coronary heart an NDS based product. it's going to probably work most advantageous for you if you already have a NetWare installation and some familiarity with the Novell method to network based mostly enterprise features. Tony Neal, IT supervisor at Marriott foreign Inc. views Novell LDAP aid as "one more piece of the protocol puzzle on the way to tie every thing collectively, with NDS as the true engine underneath". It isn't clear when speakme to Novell what number of of their eDirectory installations are in reality new clients and never simply further earnings to the existing Novell consumer base.

    a couple of years lower back Novell took a significant misstep after they proposed a new excellent-level .dir area for the cyber web. The proposed .dir area become a so-called chartered domain and would have required .dir applicants to be fully compliant with LDAP 2000, an LDAP conformance verify backed by using DIF. Novell claimed that organising the .dir area become essential because it would assure the category of web sites that would use it. The proposed domain automatically met with neighborhood resistance and become at once withdrawn. "Why is each person looking to ICANN to rubber-stamp their enterprise fashions?" spoke of Rick Wesson, CEO of Alice's Registry, in Santa Cruz, Calif., a consultancy for ICANN-permitted registrars. "Novell desires to create a LDAP (light-weight directory access Protocol) root, however does not want a TLD to do this. it might probably build the equal infrastructure below the existing DNS domains."

    Is Novell interested in LDAP?Novell has been lively with two emerging IETF specifications businesses. These efforts will little question emerge as in future Novell internet, operating gadget, and directory products.

  • SAML (security statement Markup Language) 1.0 allows for purposes to share authentication suggestions. In July, Novell participated in a SAML Interoperability discussion board as part of the Burton community. besides the fact that children, the one signal-on solution remains a piece-in-growth.
  • The equal neighborhood OASIS (organization for the development of Structured suggestions necessities) that oversees SAML also is growing the UDDI (typical Description, Discovery and Integration) specification. UDDI includes a protocol for describing internet features and queries about agencies/items. Novell sponsored engineers authored a draft schema to place UDDI tips in an LDAP listing.
  • Liberty Alliance is creating a "federated" identification authentication protocol, called "a circle of have faith", that permits users to transparently navigate between affiliated businesses. There are quite a few security entry concerns nonetheless to be determined earlier than this turns into fact. It isn't clear what expertise this schema has over existing certification systems, like PKI.
  • Novell builders are working on the subsequent unencumber of Netware code named "Nakoma." it's going to consist of more suitable DirXML support for tighter integration between NetWare, Novell Portal functions, and legacy company directories that require listing-primarily based id and access functions. latest projected availability is summer 2003.

    Some enhancements that are a part of "venture destiny" the universal Novell eDirectory and directory enhancement effort consist of:

  • UDDI server due with the aid of year-conclusion.
  • the long run version of eDirectory will be extra dynamic with greater suggestions-based "decision-making" about americans, and listing statistics.
  • "Saturn" is a Novell effort to make eDirectory and iChain (identity-driven internet entry) compatible with the freedom Alliance specification. "Saturn" reportedly might be completed by using yr-end.
  • Dynamic id capabilities and entry could be granted based on the application.
  • In conclusion, Novell has been working challenging to place itself within the forefront of the LDAP building group. Novell has leveraged its potential with X.500 and NDS to create a powerful set of equipment the use of LDAP and the NDS structure. when you are thinking about tremendous-scale identity administration purposes and you already have some familiarity with the Novell ambiance, eDirectory might be simply the toolkit you need to build your software.

    additional components

    Beth Cohen is president of Luth computing device experts, Inc., a consulting follow specializing in IT infrastructure for smaller groups. She has been in the trenches helping business IT infrastructure for over 20 years in a number of diverse fields including architecture, construction, engineering, software, telecommunications, and research. She is at present writing a publication about IT for the small enterprise and pursuing an tips Age MBA from Bentley faculty.

    Hallett German is an IT consultant who's experienced in imposing strong IT infrastructures with an emphasis on electronic messaging and directories. he's the founding father of the Northeast SAS clients neighborhood and former President of the REXX Language association. he is the author of three books on scripting languages.

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