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Sub-countrywide mapping of population pyramids and dependency ratios in Africa and Asia

Subnational tabular statistics on inhabitants age and sex structures had been gathered on a rustic via nation groundwork. The desk structure and structure dissimilar significantly from one country to the subsequent, reflecting the big selection of records sources utilised in this venture. for example, some international locations introduced absolute counts per age community at the same time as others presented proportions. The thresholds that decided the age agencies additionally numerous from nation to country, starting from 1 to 5 years. in addition, some datasets represented the entire population (e.g., national census data), while others had been a sub-pattern of the population (e.g., micro-census, family surveys). These challenges required a system of standardisation geared toward harmonizing these disparate records sources into a group of constant tables in which each and every row represents a subnational administrative unit and the fields comprise the corresponding percentage of adult males, women and americans in each 5-12 months age neighborhood (from aged 0 to 4 up to a ultimate neighborhood aged 65 and over). Standardized nation information tables have been because of this joined to their respective subnational spatial boundaries and the spatial datasets generated have been then merged collectively to supply two continental vector datasets (i.e., Africa and Asia) depicting the proportional age and sex constitution in each subnational administrative unit.

Subnational proportional age structures were then used to calculate mixed, younger-age and old-age dependency ratios for each and every administrative unit in Africa and Asia. in accordance with the typical definitions most widely present in the literature10,35, the combined dependency ratio became measured because the ratio of dependents more youthful than 15 and aged 65 and over to the population aged 15–64; the younger-age dependency ratio as the ratio of dependents younger than 15 to the working-age population aged 15–sixty four; and the old-age dependency ratio because the ratio of dependents aged sixty five and over to the working-age inhabitants. eventually, all vector subnational dependency ratio datasets were rasterized at a resolution of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 km on the equator).

A sequence of gridded 5-yr age/sex community count number datasets for Africa and Asia, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds, have been generated through gridding the subnational proportional age and intercourse constitution datasets and overlying them with the corresponding WorldPop gridded continental population count dataset (https://killexams.com/vendors-exam-list); with the latter adjusted to in shape United NationsPopulation Division (UNPD) estimates for 201036.

statistics collection

facts on inhabitants age and sex constitution, as shut as possible to 2010, had been amassed on the most effective spatial stage obtainable for all African and Asian international locations listed in Tables 1 and a pair of. the place records for a given nation have been available from distinctive sources, besides the yr wherein the information have been accumulated, yet another key determinant, such as the sample dimension of the data, become regarded in an effort to decide which facts should still be used.

desk 1: records sources for African international locations from which age and intercourse proportions had been derived. desk 2: records sources for Asian countries from which age and intercourse proportions have been derived.

The most beneficial, finished and correct source for subnational inhabitants composition is continually represented by using nation-stage census-based records that cover the complete country inhabitants. thus, for these international locations where age and intercourse constitution data had been purchasable from a fresh countrywide census, these were gathered at the highest administrative stage obtainable, along with their corresponding spatial boundaries.

For these countries the place contemporary full census records had been now not available, option sources had been sought. precedence was given to census microdata got from the built-in Public Use Microdata collection international (IPUMSI) database37. Census microdata signify household-level facts derived from census facts by using sampling a consultant fraction of the population (with pattern dimension generally between 2 and 15% of the total census).

where neither full census nor census microdata close to 2010 were purchasable, country wide household survey records had been bought from the Demographic and fitness Surveys (DHS), DHS particular Malaria indicators Surveys (MIS) and Aids Indicator Surveys (AIS)38, Social Indicator Surveys (SIS)39 or varied Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)40. while presenting a representation of the inhabitants nearer to 2010, compared to outdated full census and census microdata, household surveys are inclined to suffer from a confined sampling framework, with pattern sizes being typically lower than 1% of the country wide inhabitants and entire range extending from 0.04 to 12%. on the other hand, family survey information are designed to be representative at both country wide and subnational ranges (typically administrative stage 1, generally reminiscent of provinces) and as a consequence may also be used to derive the corresponding age and intercourse constructions. family surveys have been prioritised by way of survey year and pattern dimension.

Tables 1 and a pair of checklist information sources on a rustic-with the aid of-nation foundation for Africa and Asia, respectively, and supply information on the year of statistics assortment and the subnational administrative stage at which they have been amassed. In abstract, the information for 30 of the 87 nations had been derived from full country wide inhabitants and housing censuses, 17 from IPUMSI census microdata, 19 from average DHS, 4 from DHS-MIS/AIS/SIS and 8 from MICS (Tables 1 and 2).

For the ultimate 9 international locations the place subnational facts on population age and sex structures were now not available (particularly Libya, Eritrea, Western Sahara, Equatorial Guinea, Brunei, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Turkmenistan) 2010 UNPD nation level estimates35 were used.

records education

counting on the layout and structure of the raw tables containing the age and sex statistics for each and every given country, a particular processing approach became developed and applied so as to standardise all statistics tables across all countries. desk three gifts an example of a standardised desk, for Bhutan, through which each and every record represents a subnational administrative unit and the fields include the corresponding proportionate values of individuals (each sexes) in each and every 5-12 months age community, men and women. There follows a summary of the leading thoughts employed to system raw table statistics, summarised via information source.

table three: instance of a standardised nation table containing the proportionate values of individuals (each sexes) in each and every 5-12 months age group, ladies and men in each administrative unit. Processing countrywide census statistics

countrywide census facts is recorded and documented according to protocols decided by means of countrywide governments; hence a wide array of different table facts codecs and structures essential to be processed and standardized. Microsoft Excel became used to manually restructure the raw data tables into a standard structure, structure and schema, akin to the one presented in table 3.

Processing IPUMSI statistics

unlike information derived from full censuses, IPUMSI facts tables are already offered in a standard layout and structure and for this reason a mannequin become developed and applied with a purpose to automate the processing of standardizing them. raw nation-stage facts are supplied as comma-separated values (CSV) tables with accompanying spatial boundaries. each CSV desk is structured in line with one row per adult surveyed and the grownup’s age and intercourse is recorded in two fields within the identical table. The raw desk statistics had been processed as observe:

  • Convert each and every CSV table to a file geodatabase desk

  • Create new fields for each and every 5-yr age community and intercourse class and populate with binary values, 0 or 1; a worth of 1 in an age neighborhood container would point out that the grownup's age fell in that latitude

  • Use a summarise feature to sum the new fields by means of administrative unit (be aware, a ‘count’ of all records through administrative unit additionally offers the entire sampled population)

  • Create and populate new fields for share of total inhabitants inside each 5-12 months age community and intercourse type, by using administrative unit

  • function QA/QC to ensure that for every administrative unit a sum of people in all 5-12 months age companies equates to total population

  • operate QA/QC to make sure that for each administrative unit a sum of male and feminine equates to complete inhabitants

  • be a part of new desk statistics to spatial boundaries in accordance with administrative unit unique IDs

  • Export the temporary be part of to a geodatabase characteristic classification

  • The ArcGIS Toolbox containing the ArcGIS ModelBuilder fashions became used to operate all initiatives described above and is allotted as a part of the WorldPop-DepRatioAgeStruc-v1 code41 described within the Code availability subsection below.

    Processing family unit survey information

    family survey facts are designed to be representative at each country wide and sub-countrywide degree, where the sub-country wide degree constantly corresponds to area or province, depending of the survey pattern design and representativeness.

    information about age structure by using region were derived from household survey facts by using uncooked statistics information. due to the fact the layout and structure of all family unit survey data are very equivalent, a knowledge administration process was developed to produce standardized outputs from the raw tables containing age and sex information. family participants’ files, which consist of assistance related to every household member's age, sex and administrative unit of house, were accessed and downloaded from the relative internet pages, namely, Measure Demographic and fitness Surveys (DHS) program38 (which also includes MIS and AIS), UNICEF dissimilar Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS)forty and Social Indicator Surveys (SIS)39. records processing become in particular performed using the SPSS (IBM) statistical software42. Sampling weights had been utilized to the calculations with a view to be sure representativeness, following the relative guidance given by way of the data providers’ documentation. The variable containing sampling weights turned into identified and made accessible within the appropriate SPSS layout. additionally, in order to account for the sampling strategy adopted by the survey, central variables for strata and first sampling unit were described in SPSS (using CSPLAN evaluation). Following the DHS documentation and last file, age constructions were calculated simplest on de facto members, which are commonly defined as these household individuals who slept within the household the evening earlier than the interview. moreover, variables in the datasets comparable to individuals’ age, intercourse and administrative unit of residence were recognized. After selecting most effective de facto individuals and weighting the information correctly, go tabulations were utilized to calculate counts and proportions of inhabitants within every 5-12 months age group and intercourse classification, with the aid of administrative unit. ultimately, outputs of move tabulations have been exported into excel and reformatted with the intention to fit the typical desk schema described in the records instruction subsection.

    A template SPSS syntax file, displaying the process for developing proportional age and sex buildings from household survey information, is disbursed as a part of the WorldPop-DepRatioAgeStruc-v1 code41 described in the Code availability subsection beneath.

    becoming a member of standardised statistics tables to spatial boundaries

    once formatted to a common table schema, subnational age and sex constitution facts have been then joined on a rustic-by means of-country groundwork, the use of a GIS gadget, to their corresponding spatial boundaries; with the latter representing the executive unit level at which the information have been assembled. The ArcGIS Toolbox tool ‘be a part of container’ turned into used for this goal (…\statistics management tools.tbx\joins\join field). be aware the exception for the IPUMSI records for this stage as processing that facts become achieved as part of the model workflow described within the Processing IPUMSI facts subsection.

    Spatial boundary datasets were obtained from quite a number sources, together with the GADM database43, the DHS Spatial Repository44 and multiple country wide statistical workplaces. Mismatches with subnational administrative contraptions and topological inconsistences between country wide boundaries had been manually corrected the usage of a GIS gadget.

    Supplementary Fig. 1a,b (Africa and Asia, respectively) current the boundaries of the executive contraptions and each unit is colored based on the percentage of the overall population sampled and used to derive the 5-yr age group and sex proportions. These nation-degree spatial datasets had been then merged into two continental vector datasets (i.e., an African and Asian dataset) the use of the ArcGIS ‘Merge’ device (toolboxes\system toolboxes\statistics management tools.tbx\accepted\Merge).

    Producing subnational dependency ratio datasets

    using both continental vector datasets described above, dependency ratios were calculated using a field calculation. The ArcGIS device ‘box Calculator’ became used to populate three new fields (i.e., CDR, YDR and ODR), list subnational dependency ratio values calculated at the administrative unit stage: (1)CDR=(( notebook 014 )+(pc65)/( pc15 64 ))×100 (2)YDR=(( computer 0 14 ) /( pc15 64 ))×one hundred (three)ODR=((pc65)/( pc15 sixty four ))×one hundred where CDR, YDR and ODR characterize the mixed, young and ancient dependency ratio, respectively, (pc0_14) represents the percentage of the inhabitants aged 0 to 14, (pc65) represents the proportion of the inhabitants aged over sixty five, and (pc15_64) represents the share of inhabitants aged 15 to sixty four.

    All three subnational dependency ratio vector datasets were rasterized at a resolution of 30 arc seconds (about 1 km at the equator). figure 2 illustrates the spatial distribution of the subnational YDR dependency ratios in Africa and Asia, respectively.

    determine 2: Subnational young age dependency ratio (YDR) datasets, circa 2010. Figure 2

    (a) suggests dataset for Asia and (b) shows dataset for Africa. note differing shade scales used between the two maps to highlight adaptations.

    Producing subnational 5-year age/intercourse neighborhood count number datasets

    At this stage, to provide high resolution gridded 5-yr age/sex group count number datasets for 2010, the WorldPop continental gridded inhabitants count number datasets for Africa and Asia (https://killexams.com/vendors-exam-list), with the overall population for each country adjusted to fit United NationsPopulation Division (UNPD) estimates for 2010 (ref. 35), were expanded with the aid of the finished subnational proportional age and sex constructions assembled.

    step one during this technique was to transform the subnational administrative instruments, represented by polygon elements within the two continental vector datasets described above, from vector layout to raster grid format. every polygon characteristic (representing a subnational administrative unit) is attributed with proportionate values for each and every 5-yr age group and intercourse category (i.e., the share of the full population in every administrative unit belonging to every 5-yr age community and intercourse type). The conversion technique produced a stack of raster grids (one for each 5-year age neighborhood and intercourse category) and within every grid every pixel retained the proportionate value for that 5-yr age neighborhood or intercourse classification regarding the subnational administrative unit wherein the pixel is observed. bearing in mind that because of this these grids need to be overlaid on the WorldPop gridded continental inhabitants count datasets for Asia and Africa, in the pastimes of correct grid telephone calculations, the conversion system must make sure that the mesh of the grid is identical in terms of grid telephone dimension (decision) and grid cellphone alignment, to that of the WorldPop datasets. The conversion system makes use of the ArcGIS tool Polygon to Raster. A python script became created which called upon this tool and applied it, via iteration and even as retaining cell residences as described (using Geoprocessing atmosphere Settings), to all fields within the age/intercourse constitution vector dataset containing the 5-12 months age neighborhood and male/female proportions. The ArcGIS Toolbox containing the Geoprocessing tool which calls the Python script is disbursed as a part of the WorldPop-DepRatioAgeStruc-v1 code41 described within the Code availability subsection below.

    ArcGIS model Builder became then used to automate the processing of the ensuing stack of raster grids, (representing gridded subnational 5-12 months age group proportions). The mannequin iterated during the stack such that every raster changed into despatched to Raster Calculator tool together with the corresponding WorldPop continental gridded population count number datasets (Africa or Asia) and each had been utilised in an easy map algebra calculation: (four)AGC=AGP×WPPC (the place AGC represents the ensuing gridded inhabitants count dataset for a given 5-year age community, AGP is the gridded share dataset for the corresponding age community and WPPC is the WorldPop continental gridded population count dataset both for Africa or Asia).

    This model produced a sequence of grids for Africa and Asia, each one presenting estimates of population count for a particular age group (circa 2010) on the grid telephone stage. To disaggregate them via sex, two similar models, one for males and one for females, iterated via this stack to supply sex delineated population counts for each and every age group (circa 2010) on the grid cellphone level. These two models call upon the grids for subnational male and feminine proportions generated at an prior stage as previously described.

    determine 3 represents an utility of those datasets, offering gridded estimates of each young and dealing age population distribution (aged 0 to 14 and 15 to 65 age, respectively) for Africa and Asia.

    determine 3: Circa 2010 excessive-resolution gridded population distribution providing age constructions for mainland Africa and Madagascar and the Asian place. Figure 3

    Estimates of younger age population (0 to 14yrs) are in (a,c); estimates of working age population (15 to 65) are in (b,d). The grid cell decision is 30 arc seconds (about 1 km at the equator) and coordinate reference gadget is GCS WGS 1984.

    The ArcGIS Toolbox containing the ArcGIS ModelBuilder fashions used to operate the steps described above is allotted as part of the WorldPop-DepRatioAgeStruc-v1 code41 described within the Code availability subsection beneath.

    Code availability

    The WorldPop-DepRatioAgeStruc-v1 code41, used to supply the datasets described listed here, is publicly attainable through Figshare. It consists of (1) an ArcToolbox Geoprocessing tool to pre-process the raw IPUMSI information, (2) an SPSS (IBM edition 22) script to pre-procedure the DHS uncooked records and (three) an ArcToolbox Geoprocessing device to generate gridded age neighborhood constitution and intercourse class share datasets and mix them with gridded population count number datasets to supply the gridded age/intercourse constitution count number datasets. All of them are internally documented with a purpose to each in short explain their goal and, when required, e-book the consumer through their customization.


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